Abstract

The spectacular optical illusion of the hollow mask is considerably improved by filling the mask with a transparent medium. The mask seems to stare more directly at the onlooker and its deceptive motions follow his movements over a wider field. The history of the illusion of the hollow mask is outlined and the legend of the Bust of the Tyrant is invented. Other ways of making a bust which follows the moving onlooker face to face are discussed.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. The author saw the phenomenon for the first time in the Haunted House at Disneyland, Anaheim, Calif., in 1974.
  2. T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1976).
  3. W. Dultz, “Three-Dimensional Images on the Cycloramic Display,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.402, in press (1983).
  4. C. Wheatstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 34, 383 (1838); O. Klassiker, Abh. Geschichte Stereoskopie 168, 21 (1908).
  5. H. Schröder, Ann. Phys. Chem. 87, 306 (1852).
  6. U. Ebbecke, Wirklichkeit und Täuschung (Vandenhoeck, Göttingen, 1956).
  7. J. I. YellottIllusionen beim räumlichen Sehen. Spektrum der Wissenschaften, Sept.1981, page 55; Sci. Am. 245, 148 (1981).
    [PubMed]
  8. R. L. Gregory, The Intelligent Eye (McGraw-Hill, London, 1970), p. 128.

1981 (1)

J. I. YellottIllusionen beim räumlichen Sehen. Spektrum der Wissenschaften, Sept.1981, page 55; Sci. Am. 245, 148 (1981).
[PubMed]

1852 (1)

H. Schröder, Ann. Phys. Chem. 87, 306 (1852).

1838 (1)

C. Wheatstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 34, 383 (1838); O. Klassiker, Abh. Geschichte Stereoskopie 168, 21 (1908).

Dultz, W.

W. Dultz, “Three-Dimensional Images on the Cycloramic Display,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.402, in press (1983).

Ebbecke, U.

U. Ebbecke, Wirklichkeit und Täuschung (Vandenhoeck, Göttingen, 1956).

Gregory, R. L.

R. L. Gregory, The Intelligent Eye (McGraw-Hill, London, 1970), p. 128.

Okoshi, T.

T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1976).

Schröder, H.

H. Schröder, Ann. Phys. Chem. 87, 306 (1852).

Wheatstone, C.

C. Wheatstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 34, 383 (1838); O. Klassiker, Abh. Geschichte Stereoskopie 168, 21 (1908).

Yellott, J. I.

J. I. YellottIllusionen beim räumlichen Sehen. Spektrum der Wissenschaften, Sept.1981, page 55; Sci. Am. 245, 148 (1981).
[PubMed]

Ann. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. Schröder, Ann. Phys. Chem. 87, 306 (1852).

Illusionen beim räumlichen Sehen. Spektrum der Wissenschaften (1)

J. I. YellottIllusionen beim räumlichen Sehen. Spektrum der Wissenschaften, Sept.1981, page 55; Sci. Am. 245, 148 (1981).
[PubMed]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London (1)

C. Wheatstone, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, 34, 383 (1838); O. Klassiker, Abh. Geschichte Stereoskopie 168, 21 (1908).

Other (5)

R. L. Gregory, The Intelligent Eye (McGraw-Hill, London, 1970), p. 128.

U. Ebbecke, Wirklichkeit und Täuschung (Vandenhoeck, Göttingen, 1956).

The author saw the phenomenon for the first time in the Haunted House at Disneyland, Anaheim, Calif., in 1974.

T. Okoshi, Three Dimensional Imaging Techniques (Academic, New York, 1976).

W. Dultz, “Three-Dimensional Images on the Cycloramic Display,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.402, in press (1983).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Inversion of the hollow mask.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Inversion of the hollow mask filled with a transparent material of the refractive index n.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Turning angle of the inverted mask vs observation angle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Views of the Bust of the Tyrant from different observation angles.

Equations (3)

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d = f ( x , y ) cos α ( tan α - tan β ) , sin α sin β = n .
tan ϑ = n - 1 n tan α .
φ n + 1 n α

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