Abstract

Analytic calculations are presented which describe aberrations of the in-plane and off-plane varied line-space grating designs we recently proposed [ Appl. Opt. 22, 3921 ( 1983)]. Ray traces confirming these results to within typical accuracies of 10% are illustrated for several examples. Spectral field aberrations are calculated for convenient focal surfaces, and optimal field curvatures are calculated and ray traced. An improvement of the off-plane fan grating is proposed, where the angular spacings of the grooves are varied to achieve a large decrease in grating aberrations. However it is shown that, in conical diffraction, the net resolution can also be dominated by a diminished dispersive power compared to in-plane grating mounts. Curved groove in-plane grating designs are ray traced, revealing no substantial degradation in imaging performance by restricting such curves to concentric circles. However, it is also shown that the general case of hyperbolic grooves can be fabricated by use of visible or UV holography, with small residual aberrations. We designate this new class of holographic gratings as Type V. Misalignment aberrations of high resolution in-plane gratings, for the in situ cases of off-axis illumination, grating and detector displacements, and grating rotational misalignment, are calculated and found to be generally small.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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