Abstract

This paper describes how a conventional Pulfrich refractometer can be modified for use with laser light sources for the precise determination of the refractive index of liquids. Measurements carried out on water, several organic liquids, and KCI solutions are reported. The performance as a differential refractometer in view of determinations of specific refractive-index increments (∂n/∂c) at laser wavelengths is also presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).
  2. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).
  3. B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).
  4. H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).
  5. L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, 1980).
  6. F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser-Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1981).
  7. M. B. Huglin, Ed., Light Scattering from Polymer Solutions (Academic, London, 1972), Chap. 6.
  8. N. Bauer, S. Z. Lewin, in Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry, A. Weissberger, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1960), Part 2, Chap. 18, p. 1219.
  9. W. Nebe, “Routine und Präzisions messungen an Flüssigkeiten und Gläser,” Mess. Steuern Regeln 9, 177 (1971) and Mess. Steuern Regeln 11, 216 (1971).
  10. W. Nebe, “Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anzeige von Refraktometern,” Feingeraetetechnik 20, 554 (1971).
  11. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 95.
  12. P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 200.
  13. L. W. Tilton, J. K. Taylor, “Refractive Index and Dispersion of Distilled Water for Visible Radiation at Temperatures 0 to 60°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 20, 419 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Kruis, “Die Aquivalent dispersion von starken Elektrolyten in Losung,” Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B 34, 13 (1936).

1971 (2)

W. Nebe, “Routine und Präzisions messungen an Flüssigkeiten und Gläser,” Mess. Steuern Regeln 9, 177 (1971) and Mess. Steuern Regeln 11, 216 (1971).

W. Nebe, “Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anzeige von Refraktometern,” Feingeraetetechnik 20, 554 (1971).

1938 (1)

L. W. Tilton, J. K. Taylor, “Refractive Index and Dispersion of Distilled Water for Visible Radiation at Temperatures 0 to 60°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 20, 419 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

A. Kruis, “Die Aquivalent dispersion von starken Elektrolyten in Losung,” Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B 34, 13 (1936).

Bauer, N.

N. Bauer, S. Z. Lewin, in Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry, A. Weissberger, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1960), Part 2, Chap. 18, p. 1219.

Berne, B. J.

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 200.

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 95.

Chu, B.

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).

Cummins, H. Z.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

Drain, L. E.

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, 1980).

Durst, F.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser-Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1981).

Kruis, A.

A. Kruis, “Die Aquivalent dispersion von starken Elektrolyten in Losung,” Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B 34, 13 (1936).

Lewin, S. Z.

N. Bauer, S. Z. Lewin, in Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry, A. Weissberger, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1960), Part 2, Chap. 18, p. 1219.

Melling, A.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser-Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1981).

Nebe, W.

W. Nebe, “Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anzeige von Refraktometern,” Feingeraetetechnik 20, 554 (1971).

W. Nebe, “Routine und Präzisions messungen an Flüssigkeiten und Gläser,” Mess. Steuern Regeln 9, 177 (1971) and Mess. Steuern Regeln 11, 216 (1971).

Pecora, R.

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

Pike, E. R.

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

Taylor, J. K.

L. W. Tilton, J. K. Taylor, “Refractive Index and Dispersion of Distilled Water for Visible Radiation at Temperatures 0 to 60°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 20, 419 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Tilton, L. W.

L. W. Tilton, J. K. Taylor, “Refractive Index and Dispersion of Distilled Water for Visible Radiation at Temperatures 0 to 60°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 20, 419 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Whitelaw, J. H.

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser-Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1981).

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 95.

Feingeraetetechnik (1)

W. Nebe, “Einfluss der Temperatur auf die Anzeige von Refraktometern,” Feingeraetetechnik 20, 554 (1971).

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

L. W. Tilton, J. K. Taylor, “Refractive Index and Dispersion of Distilled Water for Visible Radiation at Temperatures 0 to 60°C,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 20, 419 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Mess. Steuern Regeln (1)

W. Nebe, “Routine und Präzisions messungen an Flüssigkeiten und Gläser,” Mess. Steuern Regeln 9, 177 (1971) and Mess. Steuern Regeln 11, 216 (1971).

Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B (1)

A. Kruis, “Die Aquivalent dispersion von starken Elektrolyten in Losung,” Z. Phys. Chem. Abt. B 34, 13 (1936).

Other (10)

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), p. 95.

P. R. Bevington, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), p. 200.

B. Chu, Laser Light Scattering (Academic, New York, 1974).

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation and Light Beating Spectroscopy (Plenum, New York, 1974).

B. J. Berne, R. Pecora, Dynamic Light Scattering (Wiley, New York, 1976).

H. Z. Cummins, E. R. Pike, Photon Correlation Spectroscopy and Velocimetry (Plenum, New York, 1977).

L. E. Drain, The Laser Doppler Technique (Wiley, Chichester, 1980).

F. Durst, A. Melling, J. H. Whitelaw, Principles and Practice of Laser-Doppler Anemometry (Academic, London, 1981).

M. B. Huglin, Ed., Light Scattering from Polymer Solutions (Academic, London, 1972), Chap. 6.

N. Bauer, S. Z. Lewin, in Physical Methods in Organic Chemistry, A. Weissberger, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1960), Part 2, Chap. 18, p. 1219.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of the refractometer: 1, unit with mercury arc and hydrogen and helium discharge tubes; 2, collimator; 3, measuring prism; 4, goniometer; 5, laser; 6, optical fiber; 7, removable optical fiber support.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Critical angle of emergence α for grazing incident light; n is the refractive index of the sample and np that of the measuring prism.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Deflection angle α for a parallel pencil of rays; n and np are the same as in Fig. 2.

Tables (6)

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Table I Dispersion Coefficients for the Measuring Prisms at 20°Ca

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Table II Refractive Index at Ar-Ion and He–Ne Laser Light Wavelengths of Bidistilled Water at 25°Ca

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Table III Refractive Index at 20°C of Some Organic Liquids

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Table IV Refractive Index at 25°C of Some Organic Liquids

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Table V Difference In Refractive Index Δn Between Several KCI Solutions and Bidistilled Water at 25°C; Δn × 106 is Tabulated

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Table VI Specific Refractive-index Increment (∂n/∂c) of KCI Solutions in Water at 25°C

Equations (6)

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n = n p 2 - cos 2 α .
n = n p 2 - cos α n p 2 - cos 2 α .
n p ( λ ) = n 0 + n 2 / λ 2 + n 4 / λ 4 + n 6 / λ 6 .
Δ n = ( n / c ) c + 1 2 ( 2 n c 2 ) c 2 .
( n / c ) = a + b / λ 2 ,
n / c = a + b / λ 2 ,

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