Abstract

A new oceanographic instrument to measure underwater optical, biological, and physical properties has been designed, built, and used extensively at sea. The new instrument system is a significant advance that permits optimum sampling strategies using ship, aircraft, and satellite optical sensors for ocean research. The design criteria for the biooptical profiling system included the rapid acquisition of data to accommodate shipboard synoptic sampling; the measurement of the necessary parameters for providing appropriate contemporaneous surface data for remote sensors; the compatibility of the data acquisition system with conventional conductivity temperature depth-type cables and winches on the oceanographic fleet; the capability of real-time display of data along with rapid preliminary data reduction at sea. The primary instrument package in this profiling system is a new microprocessor controlled multiwavelength spectroradiometer. A description of the instrument and examples of data are presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).
  2. J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).
  3. W. E. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Oceanus 24, 32 (1981).
  4. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Grower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
  10. H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review (Springer, New York, 1983).
  11. J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., “The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study: Superflux 1980,” NASA Conference Proceedings CP2188 (1981).
  12. A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Photo Scalar Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 934 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. R. Booth, “The Design and Evaluation of a Measurement System for Photosynthetically Active Quantum Scalar Irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 326 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).
  18. R. C. Smith, “An Underwater Spectral Irradiance Collector,” J. Mar. Res. 27, 341 (1969).
  19. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).
  20. A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).
  21. R. Stair, W. E. Schneider, J. K. Jackson, “A New Standard of Spectral Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 2, 1151 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  22. National Bureau of Standards Opt. Rad. News20 (1977).
  23. UNESCO, Ninth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.30 (1979).
  24. UNESCO, Tenth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.36 (1981).
  25. UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci. 37 (1981).
  26. E. L. Lewis, “The Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and its Antecedents,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 5, 3 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).
  28. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).
  30. Special issue on Oceanography from Space, Oceanus 24 (1981).

1983 (1)

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

1982 (4)

A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci. 37 (1981).

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Oceanus 24, 32 (1981).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).

Special issue on Oceanography from Space, Oceanus 24 (1981).

1980 (4)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).

E. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Lewis, “The Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and its Antecedents,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 5, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976 (1)

C. R. Booth, “The Design and Evaluation of a Measurement System for Photosynthetically Active Quantum Scalar Irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 326 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).

1972 (1)

1969 (1)

R. C. Smith, “An Underwater Spectral Irradiance Collector,” J. Mar. Res. 27, 341 (1969).

1963 (1)

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Barts, R.

R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).

Booth, C. R.

C. R. Booth, “The Design and Evaluation of a Measurement System for Photosynthetically Active Quantum Scalar Irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 326 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., “The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study: Superflux 1980,” NASA Conference Proceedings CP2188 (1981).

Clark, D. K.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dustan, P.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).

Eppley, R. W.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Esaias, W. E.

W. E. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Oceanus 24, 32 (1981).

Gordon, H. R.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, “Clear Water Radiances for Atmospheric Correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner Imagery,” Appl. Opt. 20, 4175 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).

H. R. Gordon, “Removal of Atmospheric Effects from Satellite Imagery of the Oceans,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1631 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review (Springer, New York, 1983).

Gregg, M. C.

A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).

Hovis, E. A.

E. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hovis, W. A.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jackson, J. K.

Joyce, T.

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

Lewis, E. L.

E. L. Lewis, “The Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and its Antecedents,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 5, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review (Springer, New York, 1983).

Mueller, J. L.

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).

Pak, H.

R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).

Pederson, A. M.

A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).

Schneider, W. E.

Smith, R. C.

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Photo Scalar Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 934 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, “An Underwater Spectral Irradiance Collector,” J. Mar. Res. 27, 341 (1969).

J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Grower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).

Stair, R.

Thomas, J. P.

J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., “The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study: Superflux 1980,” NASA Conference Proceedings CP2188 (1981).

Wiebe, P.

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

Wilson, W. H.

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, “Photo Scalar Irradiance,” Appl. Opt. 11, 934 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Grower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).

R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).

J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).

Appl. Opt. (4)

IEEE J. Ocean Eng. (1)

E. L. Lewis, “The Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and its Antecedents,” IEEE J. Ocean Eng. 5, 3 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. (1)

A. M. Pederson, M. C. Gregg, “Development of a Small in-situ Conductivity Instrument,” IEEE J. Oceanic Eng. OE-4, 69 (1975).

J. Mar. Res. (1)

R. C. Smith, “An Underwater Spectral Irradiance Collector,” J. Mar. Res. 27, 341 (1969).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (2)

C. R. Booth, “The Design and Evaluation of a Measurement System for Photosynthetically Active Quantum Scalar Irradiance,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 21, 326 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Baker, R. C. Smith, “Bio-Optical Classification and Model of Natural Waters: II,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 27, 500 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Biol. (2)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Oceanic Chlorophyll Concentrations as Determined by Satellite (czcs),” Mar. Biol. 66, 269 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, R. W. Eppley, “Correlation of Primary Production as Measured Aboard Ship in Southern California Coastal Waters and as Estimated from Satellite Chlorophyll Images,” Mar. Biol. 66, 281 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Geod. (1)

A. Morel, R. C. Smith, “Terminology and Units in Optical Oceanography,” Mar. Geod. 5, 335 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oceanus (3)

W. E. Esaias, “Remote Sensing in Biological Oceanography,” Oceanus 24, 32 (1981).

T. Joyce, P. Wiebe, “Warm Core Rings of the Gulf Stream,” Oceanus 26, 34 (1983).

Special issue on Oceanography from Space, Oceanus 24 (1981).

Photochem. Photobiol. (1)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Penetration of UV-B and Biologically Effective Dose-Rates in Natural Waters,” Photochem. Photobiol. 29, 311 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (2)

H. R. Gordon, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “Introduction to Ocean Optics,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 206, 14 (1979).

R. Barts, J. R. V. Zaneveld, H. Pak, “A Transmissometer for Profiling and Moored Observations in Water,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 180, 102 (1978).

Science (3)

E. A. Hovis et al., “Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: System Description and Initial Imagery,” Science 210, 60 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Gordon, D. K. Clark, J. L. Mueller, W. A. Hovis, “Phytoplankton Pigments from the Nimbus 7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner: Comparisons with Surface Measurements,” Science 210, 63 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, “Stratospheric Ozone, Middle Ultraviolet Radiation and 14C Measurements of Marine Productivity,” Science 208, 529 (1980).

Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, P. Dustan, “Fluorometer Techniques for Measurement of Oceanic Chlorophyll in the Support of Remote Sensing,” Scripps Inst. Oceanogr. Ref. 81-17 (1981).

UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci. (1)

UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci. 37 (1981).

Other (7)

National Bureau of Standards Opt. Rad. News20 (1977).

UNESCO, Ninth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.30 (1979).

UNESCO, Tenth Report of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards, UNESCO Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci.36 (1981).

R. C. Smith, W. H. Wilson, in Oceanography from Space, J. F. R. Grower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).

H. R. Gordon, A. Morel, Remote Assessment of Ocean Color for Interpretation of Satellite Visible Imagery, a Review (Springer, New York, 1983).

J. W. Campbell, J. P. Thomas, Eds., “The Chesapeake Bay Plume Study: Superflux 1980,” NASA Conference Proceedings CP2188 (1981).

J. L. Mueller, R. C. Smith, J. R. V. Zaneveld, ODEX Cruise Report (1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of the biooptical profiling system underwater unit. The MER-1015 spectroradiometer for viewing downwelling irradiance is seen with its cosine collector in the upper right and for the upwelling irradiance is seen below. The rosette sampler for obtaining discrete water samples is on the left. The total scalar irradiance (PAR) collector is the small white sphere mounted on the upper left. The beam transmissometer is mounted vertically on the far side of the center brace. The fluorometer (not mounted in this photograph) is mounted vertically on the near side of the center brace. The upwelling radiance collectors (two) are to the right of the rosette. The temperature, conductivity, and depth probes are mounted on the downwelling spectroradiometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the BOPS integrated system showing the principal components of the underwater and the deck units connected by means of a hydrowinch and slip rings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Functional diagram of the MER-1015 underwater spectroradiometer. See text for details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Directly determined BOPS data from Central Equatorial Pacific (ODEX Cruise, Station 94, 4 Nov. 1982, Lat. 33 50 N, Long. 140 58 W): (a) temperature, conductivity, beam transmittance, and chlorophyll fluorescence vs depth; (b) downwelling and upwelling spectral irradiance for two (of twelve) channels (441 and 520 nm) and scalar irradiance (350–750 nm) are shown as representative examples of depth profiles; (c) spectral downwelling irradiance (for all twelve channels) vs wavelength for several depths is shown as representative examples of spectral data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Parameters that can be derived from BOPS data within minutes after the completion of a vertical cast. (a) σt (kg × m−3), chlorophyll concentration (mg Chl × m−3), pheophytin concentration (mg pigment × m−3), beam attenuation coefficient (m−1) vs depth (m). These quick read-out σt data are not corrected for temperature and salinity spiking.27,28 (b) Diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance (m−1) vs depth (m) derived from data shown in Figs. 4(b) and (c). (c) Total irradiance (μW m−2) and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) (micro Einsteins m−2) vs depth. ET and EPAR were derived from the spectral irradiance data shown in Fig. 4(c).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Instrument Components of the BOPS Underwater Unit

Tables Icon

Table II Performance Specifications for the Biooptical Profiling System (BOPS)

Metrics