Abstract

A gradient-index antireflection coating spanning the 0.6–12.6-μm wavelength range for a ZnSe substrate was designed, fabricated, and tested. The index profile used was a fifth-order polynominal that smoothly matches the substrate. The coating was fabricated using a discrete layer approximation for the gradient-index design using ZnSe and CaF2 deposited by laser-assisted evaporation. Total thickness of the coating was 3 μm. Transmission measurements show good agreement with calculated performance. Reflectivity per surface is <3% (compared with 17% for uncoated ZnSe) in the wavelength band encompassing 4.5 octaves from 0.6 to 12.6 μm.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. T. Cox, G. Hass, “Antireflection Coatings,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 2, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964).
  2. M. J. Minot, “Single-Layer, Gradient Refractive Index Antireflection Films Effective from 0.35 to 2.5 μm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 515 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. H. Southwell, “Gradient-Index Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Lett. 8, 584 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Sankur, E. Motamedi, “Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Atlanta (Nov. 1983).
  5. J. T. Cheung, T. Magee, “Recent Progress in LADA Growth of HgCdT and CdTe Epitaxial Layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 1604 (1983).
  6. H. Sankur, “Properties of Electronic Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” Materials Research Symposium, Boston (Nov. 1983).
  7. N. I. Posdynak, V. S. Mylnikow, “Laser Evaporation Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Films,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 492 (1978).
  8. G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, “Vacuum Deposition of Dielectric and Semiconductor Films by a CO2 Laser,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1115 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Cali, V. Daneu, A. Orioli, S. Riva-Sanseverino, “Flash Evaporation of Compounds with a Pulsed Discharge CO2 Layer,” Appl. Opt. 15, 1327 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Yu A. Ky Bykovskii et al., “Deposition of Metal, Semiconductor, and Oxide Films with a Periodically Pulsed CO2 Laser,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 578 (1978).
  11. Y. M. Dubkov, “Analysis of the Conditions for Obtaining Homogeneous Optical Coatings by the Pulsed Laser Evaporation Method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 49, 168 (1982).

1983 (2)

W. H. Southwell, “Gradient-Index Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Lett. 8, 584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Cheung, T. Magee, “Recent Progress in LADA Growth of HgCdT and CdTe Epitaxial Layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 1604 (1983).

1982 (1)

Y. M. Dubkov, “Analysis of the Conditions for Obtaining Homogeneous Optical Coatings by the Pulsed Laser Evaporation Method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 49, 168 (1982).

1978 (2)

Yu A. Ky Bykovskii et al., “Deposition of Metal, Semiconductor, and Oxide Films with a Periodically Pulsed CO2 Laser,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 578 (1978).

N. I. Posdynak, V. S. Mylnikow, “Laser Evaporation Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Films,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 492 (1978).

1976 (2)

1969 (1)

Cali, C.

Cheung, J. T.

J. T. Cheung, T. Magee, “Recent Progress in LADA Growth of HgCdT and CdTe Epitaxial Layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 1604 (1983).

Cox, J. T.

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, “Antireflection Coatings,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 2, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964).

Daneu, V.

Dubkov, Y. M.

Y. M. Dubkov, “Analysis of the Conditions for Obtaining Homogeneous Optical Coatings by the Pulsed Laser Evaporation Method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 49, 168 (1982).

Hass, G.

G. Hass, J. B. Ramsey, “Vacuum Deposition of Dielectric and Semiconductor Films by a CO2 Laser,” Appl. Opt. 8, 1115 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, “Antireflection Coatings,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 2, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964).

Ky Bykovskii, Yu A.

Yu A. Ky Bykovskii et al., “Deposition of Metal, Semiconductor, and Oxide Films with a Periodically Pulsed CO2 Laser,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 578 (1978).

Magee, T.

J. T. Cheung, T. Magee, “Recent Progress in LADA Growth of HgCdT and CdTe Epitaxial Layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 1604 (1983).

Minot, M. J.

Motamedi, E.

H. Sankur, E. Motamedi, “Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Atlanta (Nov. 1983).

Mylnikow, V. S.

N. I. Posdynak, V. S. Mylnikow, “Laser Evaporation Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Films,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 492 (1978).

Orioli, A.

Posdynak, N. I.

N. I. Posdynak, V. S. Mylnikow, “Laser Evaporation Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Films,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 492 (1978).

Ramsey, J. B.

Riva-Sanseverino, S.

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur, E. Motamedi, “Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Atlanta (Nov. 1983).

H. Sankur, “Properties of Electronic Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” Materials Research Symposium, Boston (Nov. 1983).

Southwell, W. H.

W. H. Southwell, “Gradient-Index Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Lett. 8, 584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J. Opt. Lett. (1)

W. H. Southwell, “Gradient-Index Antireflection Coatings,” J. Opt. Lett. 8, 584 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

J. T. Cheung, T. Magee, “Recent Progress in LADA Growth of HgCdT and CdTe Epitaxial Layers,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A1, 1604 (1983).

Sov. J. Opt. Technol. (1)

Y. M. Dubkov, “Analysis of the Conditions for Obtaining Homogeneous Optical Coatings by the Pulsed Laser Evaporation Method,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 49, 168 (1982).

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (2)

N. I. Posdynak, V. S. Mylnikow, “Laser Evaporation Synthesis of Zinc Sulfide Films,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 492 (1978).

Yu A. Ky Bykovskii et al., “Deposition of Metal, Semiconductor, and Oxide Films with a Periodically Pulsed CO2 Laser,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 23, 578 (1978).

Other (3)

H. Sankur, “Properties of Electronic Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” Materials Research Symposium, Boston (Nov. 1983).

J. T. Cox, G. Hass, “Antireflection Coatings,” in Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 2, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1964).

H. Sankur, E. Motamedi, “Properties of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Laser Evaporation,” IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, Atlanta (Nov. 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Gradient-index profile and reflectivity plots for (a) linear variation and (b) quintic variation. The substrate of index 2.4 is on the left of the index plot.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Discrete layer approximation of the quintic-index profile shown in Fig. 1 and its reflectivity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of laser-aided evaporation apparatus.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index as measured by transmittance spectroscopy and ellipsometry vs volume composition of ZnSe–CaF2 layered stack. Each bilayer is 200 Å thick.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance spectra of single side AR coated and uncoated ZnSe.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission measurements of a ZnSe substrate coated on both sides compared to calculated values assuming no absorption or dispersion.

Equations (6)

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n ( x ) = n L + ( n H - n L ) x / T ,             linear ,
n ( x ) = n L + ( n H - n L ) [ 10 ( x T ) 3 - 15 ( x T ) 4 + 6 ( x T ) 5 ] ,             quintic ,
n t = n L t L + n H t H ,
t = t L + t H
t H = ( n - n L ) ( n H - n L ) t ,
t L = t - t H .

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