Abstract

A highly efficient splicing technique for single-mode fibers is investigated. Several techniques are presented for realizing both a highly precise splice loss estimation and excellent working efficiency. The techniques markedly simplify the splice procedure and improve working efficiency. A monitoring length of 60 km, a splice loss measurement accuracy of ±0.01 dB, a fusion splice time of 2.5 min, and an average splice loss of 0.04 dB are satisfactorily achieved in laboratory experiments.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).
  2. C. G. Someda, “Simple, Low Loss Joints Between Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).
  3. T. G. Pavlopoulos, A. L. Lewis, M. N. McLandrich, “Simple Method for Permanently Connecting Single-Mode Fibers,” Appl. Opt. 16, 1466 (1977).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1976).
  5. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
    [Crossref]
  6. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979), in Japanese.
  7. Y. Kato, S. Seikai, M. Tateda, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 1: Optimum Splice Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1332 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Ishida, C. Tanaka, K. Harada, Y. Kato, Y. Katsuyama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Performance of Field-Installed 1.3-μm Band Single-Mode Optical Cable,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3079 (1983).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Kato, S. Seikai, T. Tanifuji, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers: Description of Apparatus with Automatic Core-Axis Alignment Mechanism and Field Trial Results,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.2, 000 (1984), in press.
    [Crossref]
  11. R. E. Wagner, C. R. Sandahl, “Interference Effects in Optical Fiber Connections,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1381 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.
  13. Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  16. D. Marcuse, “Curvature Loss Formula for Optical Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  18. K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

1983 (2)

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Y. Ishida, C. Tanaka, K. Harada, Y. Kato, Y. Katsuyama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Performance of Field-Installed 1.3-μm Band Single-Mode Optical Cable,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3079 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (4)

1981 (2)

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (2)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979), in Japanese.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

1976 (2)

D. Marcuse, “Curvature Loss Formula for Optical Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216 (1976).
[Crossref]

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1976).

1973 (2)

J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).

C. G. Someda, “Simple, Low Loss Joints Between Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

Cook, J. S.

J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).

Edahiro, T.

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

Grow, R. J.

J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).

Harada, K.

Hatakeyama, I.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979), in Japanese.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[Crossref]

Hatano, Y.

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Hosaka, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ishida, Y.

Kato, Y.

Y. Ishida, C. Tanaka, K. Harada, Y. Kato, Y. Katsuyama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Performance of Field-Installed 1.3-μm Band Single-Mode Optical Cable,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3079 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, M. Tateda, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 1: Optimum Splice Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1332 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, T. Tanifuji, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers: Description of Apparatus with Automatic Core-Axis Alignment Mechanism and Field Trial Results,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.2, 000 (1984), in press.
[Crossref]

Katsuyama, Y.

Kawachi, M.

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

Kitayama, K.

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

Koyamada, Y.

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Lewis, A. L.

Mammel, W. L.

J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1976).

D. Marcuse, “Curvature Loss Formula for Optical Fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 216 (1976).
[Crossref]

McLandrich, M. N.

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.

Miya, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

Pavlopoulos, T. G.

Sandahl, C. R.

Seikai, S.

Y. Ishida, C. Tanaka, K. Harada, Y. Kato, Y. Katsuyama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Performance of Field-Installed 1.3-μm Band Single-Mode Optical Cable,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3079 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, M. Tateda, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 1: Optimum Splice Conditions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1332 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, T. Tanifuji, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers: Description of Apparatus with Automatic Core-Axis Alignment Mechanism and Field Trial Results,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.2, 000 (1984), in press.
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

Someda, C. G.

C. G. Someda, “Simple, Low Loss Joints Between Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

Tachigami, S.

Tanaka, C.

Tanifuji, T.

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, T. Tanifuji, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers: Description of Apparatus with Automatic Core-Axis Alignment Mechanism and Field Trial Results,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.2, 000 (1984), in press.
[Crossref]

Tateda, M.

Terunuma, Y.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

Toda, Y.

Tokuda, M.

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[Crossref]

Tomaru, S.

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

Tsuchiya, H.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979), in Japanese.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[Crossref]

Uchida, N.

Y. Ishida, C. Tanaka, K. Harada, Y. Kato, Y. Katsuyama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Performance of Field-Installed 1.3-μm Band Single-Mode Optical Cable,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3079 (1983).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[Crossref]

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R. E.

Watanabe, O.

Yamashita, K.

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Yasu, M.

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (3)

J. S. Cook, W. L. Mammel, R. J. Grow, “Effect of Misalignments on Coupling Efficiency of Single-Mode Optical Fiber Butt Joints,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 1439 (1973).

C. G. Someda, “Simple, Low Loss Joints Between Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 52, 583 (1973).

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1976).

Electron. Lett. (3)

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibers and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[Crossref]

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, T. Miyashita, “Ultimate Low-Loss Single-Mode Fiber at 1.55 μm,” Electron. Lett. 15, 106 (1979).
[Crossref]

S. Tomaru, M. Yasu, M. Kawachi, T. Edahiro, “VAD Single-Mode Fiber with 0.2 dB/km Loss,” Electron. Lett. 17, 92 (1981).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. Kato, K. Kitayama, S. Seikai, N. Uchida, “Effective Cutoff Wavelength of the LP11 Mode in Single-Mode Fiber Cables,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 35 (1981).
[Crossref]

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 614 (1978).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Trans. IECE Jpn. (2)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fibers,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979), in Japanese.

K. Yamashita, Y. Koyamada, M. Tokuda, Y. Hatano, “Coupling Efficiency of an Optical Identifier Using Bending Method,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J66-B, 1426 (1983), in Japanese.

Other (2)

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, T. Tanifuji, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers: Description of Apparatus with Automatic Core-Axis Alignment Mechanism and Field Trial Results,” IEEE/OSA J. Lightwave Technol.2, 000 (1984), in press.
[Crossref]

C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest of Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength dependence of bending loss at the optical detector. λ ce and R denote effective LP11-mode cutoff wavelength and bending radius at the optical detector, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the radiation power ratio on the LP11-mode cutoff wavelength for light source wavelengths of 1.3 and 1.55 μm. L, Pa, and Pb denote the monitoring fiber length, radiation power at 1.55 μm, and radiation power at 1.3 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram for single-mode fiber splicing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two splice conditions for monitoring power measurement.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relationship between splice loss α s and monitoring level change ΔP before and after fusion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Histogram of butt-joint loss α b .

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Procedures of arc-fusion splice.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Flow chart of arc-fusion splice.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Example of splice loss change for fully automatic splice flow.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Splice loss change as a function of discharge duration. The asterisk shows a splice loss change due to evaporation of matching fluid.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Manufactured splice apparatus.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Cumulative probability distribution of splice loss.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Characteristics of Splice Loss Monitoring System

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ P = 10 log ( P 1 / P 2 ) ,
α s = ( Δ P + 0.02 ) ± 0.01 dB ,

Metrics