Abstract

A new simple local monitoring method in core alignments of single-mode fibers is presented. We have investigated cladding-mode leakage light characteristics in fibers coated with different materials. In view of the results of the study, we have developed an arc-fusion splicer with a simple photoreceiver for monitoring the leakage light power. Using the splicer, we have obtained a surprisingly good result of an average splice loss of 0.03 dB with transmitted optical power of only 1 μW at the butt-joint point. This method can be used for final splicings between repeaters in long-haul optical fiber digital transmission systems.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Tanifuji, Y. Kato, “Realization of a Low Loss Splice for Single-Mode Fibers in the Field Using an Automatic Arc-Fusion Splicing Machine,” in Proceedings, Optical Fiber Communication (Feb.1983), paper MG3.
  2. K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, “Monitoring Method for Axis Alignment of Single-Mode Optical Fifer and Splice-Loss Estimation,” Opt. Lett. 8, 235 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Imon, M. Tokuda, “Axis-Alignment Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fiber Using a Beam Splitter,” Opt. Lett. 8, 502 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.
  6. C. M. Miller, G. F. Deveau, M. Y. Smith, “Low Loss Single Mode Fiber Splices Using Ultraviolet Curable Cement,” in Technical Digest, International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (July1983), paper 30A3-6.
  7. M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.
  8. Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. M. De Blok, P. Matthijsse, “Core Alignment Procedure for Single-Mode-Fibre Jointing,” Electron. Lett. 20, 109 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979).
  11. D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).
  12. Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

1984 (1)

C. M. De Blok, P. Matthijsse, “Core Alignment Procedure for Single-Mode-Fibre Jointing,” Electron. Lett. 20, 109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

1982 (4)

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979).

1977 (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Asakawa, K.

M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.

De Blok, C. M.

C. M. De Blok, P. Matthijsse, “Core Alignment Procedure for Single-Mode-Fibre Jointing,” Electron. Lett. 20, 109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Deveau, G. F.

C. M. Miller, G. F. Deveau, M. Y. Smith, “Low Loss Single Mode Fiber Splices Using Ultraviolet Curable Cement,” in Technical Digest, International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (July1983), paper 30A3-6.

Fujise, M.

M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.

Haibara, T.

Hatakeyama, I.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979).

Imon, K.

Ishikawa, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

Kato, Y.

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, S. Seikai, N. Shibata, S. Tachigami, Y. Toda, O. Watanabe, “Arc-Fusion Splicing of Single-Mode Fibers. 2: A Practical Splice Machine,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1916 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Tanifuji, Y. Kato, “Realization of a Low Loss Splice for Single-Mode Fibers in the Field Using an Automatic Arc-Fusion Splicing Machine,” in Proceedings, Optical Fiber Communication (Feb.1983), paper MG3.

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Matsumoto, M.

Matthijsse, P.

C. M. De Blok, P. Matthijsse, “Core Alignment Procedure for Single-Mode-Fibre Jointing,” Electron. Lett. 20, 109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Miller, C. M.

C. M. Miller, G. F. Deveau, M. Y. Smith, “Low Loss Single Mode Fiber Splices Using Ultraviolet Curable Cement,” in Technical Digest, International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (July1983), paper 30A3-6.

C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.

Niiro, Y.

Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

Nunokawa, M.

K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Seikai, S.

Shibata, N.

Shirasaki, Y.

M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.

Smith, M. Y.

C. M. Miller, G. F. Deveau, M. Y. Smith, “Low Loss Single Mode Fiber Splices Using Ultraviolet Curable Cement,” in Technical Digest, International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (July1983), paper 30A3-6.

Tachigami, S.

Takai, K.

Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

Tanifuji, T.

T. Haibara, M. Matsumoto, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, “Monitoring Method for Axis Alignment of Single-Mode Optical Fifer and Splice-Loss Estimation,” Opt. Lett. 8, 235 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Tanifuji, Y. Kato, “Realization of a Low Loss Splice for Single-Mode Fibers in the Field Using an Automatic Arc-Fusion Splicing Machine,” in Proceedings, Optical Fiber Communication (Feb.1983), paper MG3.

Tatekura, K.

K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Toda, Y.

Tokuda, M.

Tsuchiya, H.

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979).

Uchida, N.

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wakabayashi, H.

Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

Watanabe, O.

Yamamoto, H.

K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

D. Marcuse, “Loss Analysis of Single-Mode Fiber Splices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 56, 703 (1977).

Electron. Lett. (3)

K. Tatekura, H. Yamamoto, M. Nunokawa, “Novel Core Alignment Method for Low-Loss Splicing of Single-Mode Fibres Utilising UV-Excited Fluorescence of Ge-Doped Silica Core,” Electron. Lett. 18, 712 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, T. Tanifuji, M. Tokuda, N. Uchida, “New Optical Monitoring Method for Arc-Fusion Splice of Single-Mode Fibres and High-Precision Estimation of Splice Loss,” Electron. Lett. 18, 972 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. M. De Blok, P. Matthijsse, “Core Alignment Procedure for Single-Mode-Fibre Jointing,” Electron. Lett. 20, 109 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (1)

M. Fujise, K. Asakawa, Y. Shirasaki, “Single-Mode Fiber Arc Fusion Splicing by Monitoring the Leakage Light,” Natl. Conv. Rec. IECE Jpn. (Aug.1982), No. 389.

Opt. Lett. (2)

Trans. IECE Jpn. (1)

I. Hatakeyama, H. Tsuchiya, “Fusion Splice Loss for Single-Mode Optical Fiber,” Trans. IECE Jpn. J62-C, 803 (1979).

Other (4)

C. M. Miller, “Local Detection Device for Single-Mode Fiber Splicing,” in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper THAA2.

C. M. Miller, G. F. Deveau, M. Y. Smith, “Low Loss Single Mode Fiber Splices Using Ultraviolet Curable Cement,” in Technical Digest, International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication (July1983), paper 30A3-6.

Y. Ishikawa, Y. Niiro, K. Takai, H. Wakabayashi, “7000m Depth Deep Sea Trial of OS-280M Optical Fibre Submarine Cable System,” Electron Lett., to be submitted.

T. Tanifuji, Y. Kato, “Realization of a Low Loss Splice for Single-Mode Fibers in the Field Using an Automatic Arc-Fusion Splicing Machine,” in Proceedings, Optical Fiber Communication (Feb.1983), paper MG3.

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of cladding-mode leakage process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Setup for leakage light power measurements.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of cladding-mode leakage light power along silicone-coated fiber.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microbubbles in silicone buffer layers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Leakage light power around silicone-coated fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular distribution of leakage light power in silicone-coated fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Distribution of leakage light power along UV-curable resin-coated fiber.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Cladding-mode coupling coefficient vs transverse offset.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Changes of monitored levels of cladding-mode leakage light and far-end output light against transverse offset of core axis.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Responsivity and noise floor of the photoreceiver.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Detected signal levels against transverse offset. (a) silicone-coated fiber, (b) UV-curable resin-coated fiber.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Top view of arc-fusion splicer with 10-mmϕ Ge-PD for cladding-mode leakage power monitoring.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Splice loss of UV-curable resin-coated fiber.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Leakage light level after splicing against splice loss.

Tables (2)

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Table I Structural Parameters of a Silicone Resin-Coated Fiber

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Table II Structural Parameters of an UV-Curable Resin-Coated Fiber

Equations (8)

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η g = ( n 1 k ) 2 ω 0 4 ( Δ Z ) 2 + ( n 1 k ) 2 ω 0 4 exp [ - ( n 1 k ) 2 ω 0 2 ( Δ X ) 2 ( Δ Z ) 2 + ( n 1 k ) 2 ω 0 4 ] ,
ω 0 = a ( 0.650 + 1.619 V - 1.5 + 2.879 V - 6 ) ,
η c = 1 - η g .
V 0 = { ( η e h ν P i ) 2 + [ 2 e ( η e h ν P i ) + 2 e I d + 4 k T R f + ( V n R d ) 2 ] B } 1 / 2 · R f ,
( η e h ν P i )
[ 2 e ( η e h ν P i ) + 2 e I d ] B ,
4 k T R f B ,
η = 0.6 ,             ν = 2.31 × 10 14 Hz ,             I d = 300 μ A ,             T = 300 K , R f = 1 M Ω ,             R d = 500 Ω ,             V n = 3.2 nV / Hz , B = 4 , 8 Hz .

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