Abstract

An end-point optical fiber interferometer using thin-film retroreflectors is introduced, which is very simple to construct and align. The use of single-mode and multimode fibers for illumination and signal reception, respectively, greatly increases optical efficiency and phase stability. In particular, measurements of essentially static phenomena are made possible. Limitations remaining on the use of thin-film retroreflectors as a coupling mechanism for interferometric fiber sensors are investigated. Error sources include finite numerical aperture effects, multiple beam interferences, and thermally pumped mechanical motions.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. B. Spillman, “Multimode Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Based on the Photoelastic Effect,” Opt. Lett. 7, 388 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Johnson, “Fiber-End Interferometer Using Cooperative Retroreflectors,” Opt. Lett. 8, 593 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. R. B. Dyott, “The Fibre-Optic Doppler Anemometer,” Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 13 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Boehm, E. Weidel, R. Ulrich, “Low-Noise Fiber-Optic Rotation Sensing,” Opt. Lett. 6, 64 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. E. Bowers, “Fiber-Optical Sensor for Surface Acoustic Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 231 (1982).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

J. E. Bowers, “Fiber-Optical Sensor for Surface Acoustic Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 231 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. B. Spillman, “Multimode Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor Based on the Photoelastic Effect,” Opt. Lett. 7, 388 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1978 (1)

R. B. Dyott, “The Fibre-Optic Doppler Anemometer,” Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 13 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. E. Bowers, “Fiber-Optical Sensor for Surface Acoustic Waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 231 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Microwaves Opt. Acoust. (1)

R. B. Dyott, “The Fibre-Optic Doppler Anemometer,” Microwaves Opt. Acoust. 2, 13 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conventional fiber Doppler velocimeter (a), with optical efficiency enhanced through use of thin-film retroreflectors (b). Speckle effects causing poor phase stability are reduced through the mixed-fiber scheme of (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interferogram output of a moving-coil actuator moving with a peak-to-peak excursion of 1.1 μm at 500 Hz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interferogram of conventional and stabilized fiber interferometers. The triangular trace is the actuator drive voltage. Top trace shows the conventional device, with output almost invisible in air-current driven phase modulation. The third trace shows the clearly resolved interferogram from the stabilized device using an AlGaAs laser as source.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation of interferogram from multiple beads over large motion distances. Occasional signal dropouts occur which may limit absolute accuracy.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Interferogram from actuator with ~56-μm displacement, showing envelope modulation due to bead walkoff effects.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrum of interferogram from stabilized interferometer placed 1 mm away from an oscillating actuator exhibiting sinusoidal motion with peak velocity of 0.025 m/sec. Three separate spectra may be seen, corresponding to apparent motions at 0.025, 0.050, and 0.075 m/sec. These are caused by multiple reflections between object and beam splitter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response of the stablized interferometer to suddenly applied optical signal. Thermal relaxation of the retroreflector material causes a transient motion, visible here as an apparent phase shift. The effect is greatly reduced through correct mounting of the retroreflector to a solid support.

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