Abstract

The rationale, design, and performance of a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer are discussed. The instrument was employed in the measurement of stratospheric emissionin the 7–90-cm−1 spectral interval with a 0.0033-cm−1 resolution (unapodized) from a balloon-borne platform at ~40-km altitude.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Carli et al., “Preliminary Results of Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption at Infrared Wavelengths at Gornergrat,” Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 47, 101 (1976).
  5. R. E. Hills et al., “Absolute Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption in the Range 100–1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18, 819 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. N. Coron, “A New Type of Helium-Cooled Bolometer,” Infrared Phys. 16, 441 (1979).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  34. B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  35. C. Shannon, “Communication in the Presence of Noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10 (1949).
    [CrossRef]
  36. B. Gold, C. Rader, Digital Processing of Signals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).
  37. J. Connes, ASPEN International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, AFCRL-71-0019, S.R. 114, 83 (1970).
  38. M. L. Forman, “Spectral Interpolation: Zero Fill or Convolution,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2801 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. F. J. Harris, “On the Use of Windows for Armonic Analysis with Discrete Fourier Transform,” Proc. IEEE 66, 51 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).
  41. M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

1984

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

1983

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

N. Coron, “A New Type of Helium-Cooled Bolometer,” Infrared Phys. 16, 441 (1979).

B. Carli, V. Natale, “Efficiency of Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3954 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

D. K. Lambert, P. L. Richards, “Martin-Puplett Interferometer: an Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1595 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Raine, M. J. Downs, “Beam Splitter Coatings for Producing Phase Quadrature Interferometer Outputs,” Opt. Acta 25, 549 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hills et al., “Absolute Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption in the Range 100–1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18, 819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

D. J. W. Kendall, T. A. Clark, “Balloon-borne Far Infrared Michelson Interferometer for Atmospheric Emission Studies,” Appl. Opt. 18, 346 (1978).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Harris, “On the Use of Windows for Armonic Analysis with Discrete Fourier Transform,” Proc. IEEE 66, 51 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1976

B. Carli et al., “Preliminary Results of Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption at Infrared Wavelengths at Gornergrat,” Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 47, 101 (1976).

1975

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. R. C. Rowley, “Bidirectional Counting for the Measurements of Laser Beat Frequencies,” J. Phys. E. 8, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

B. Carli, “Design of a Black Body Reference Standard for the Submillimeter Region,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1904 (1974).

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, R. J. Donally, “Upper Atmosphere Emission Spectrum at Millimeter Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 236, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Bell, R. B. Sanderson, “Spectral Errors Resulting from Random Sampling-Position Errors in Fourier Transform Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 11, 688 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

J. A. Eddy, R. H. Lee, P. J. Lena, R. M. MacQueen, “Far Infrared Airborne Spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 9, 439 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, “Polarized Interferometric Spectrometry for the Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectrum,” Infrared Phys. 10, 105 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966

1961

J. Connes, “Recherches sur la Spectroscopie par Transformation de Fourier,” Rev. Opt. 40, 171 (1961).

1960

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 268 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1949

C. Shannon, “Communication in the Presence of Noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Ade, P. A. R.

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baldecchi, M. G.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

Baluteau, J. P.

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

Bangham, M. J.

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

Beckman, J. E.

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bell, E. E.

Bonetti, A.

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

Burroughs, W. J.

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harries, W. J. Burroughs, in Proceedings Infrared Techniques Conference, Reading (IERE, London, 1971), p. 271.

Bussoletti, E.

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

Cameron, R. H.

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Carli, B.

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, V. Natale, “Efficiency of Spectrometers,” Appl. Opt. 18, 3954 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Very-High-Resolution Far-Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Emission from Aircraft,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 917 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli et al., “Preliminary Results of Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption at Infrared Wavelengths at Gornergrat,” Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 47, 101 (1976).

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, “Design of a Black Body Reference Standard for the Submillimeter Region,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1904 (1974).

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

Carlotti, M.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

Carruthers, G. P.

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Clark, T. A.

Clegg, P. E.

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Connes, J.

J. Connes, “Recherches sur la Spectroscopie par Transformation de Fourier,” Rev. Opt. 40, 171 (1961).

J. Connes, ASPEN International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, AFCRL-71-0019, S.R. 114, 83 (1970).

Coron, N.

N. Coron, “A New Type of Helium-Cooled Bolometer,” Infrared Phys. 16, 441 (1979).

Costley, A. E.

Di Lonardo, G.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

Dinelli, B. M.

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Donally, R. J.

I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, R. J. Donally, “Upper Atmosphere Emission Spectrum at Millimeter Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 236, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Downs, M. J.

K. W. Raine, M. J. Downs, “Beam Splitter Coatings for Producing Phase Quadrature Interferometer Outputs,” Opt. Acta 25, 549 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, J. A.

El-Atawy, S.

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Forman, M. L.

Forni, F.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Gebbie, H. A.

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Gold, B.

B. Gold, C. Rader, Digital Processing of Signals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Harries, J. E.

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Very-High-Resolution Far-Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Emission from Aircraft,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 917 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

J. E. Harries, W. J. Burroughs, in Proceedings Infrared Techniques Conference, Reading (IERE, London, 1971), p. 271.

Harris, F. J.

F. J. Harris, “On the Use of Windows for Armonic Analysis with Discrete Fourier Transform,” Proc. IEEE 66, 51 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hills, R. E.

R. E. Hills et al., “Absolute Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption in the Range 100–1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18, 819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Huizinga, J. S.

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hursey, K. H.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 268 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Kendall, D. J. W.

Lambert, D. K.

Langlet, A.

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

Lee, R. H.

Lena, P. J.

MacQueen, R. M.

Martin, D. H.

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Very-High-Resolution Far-Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Emission from Aircraft,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 917 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, “Polarized Interferometric Spectrometry for the Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectrum,” Infrared Phys. 10, 105 (1970).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

Mather, J. P.

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mencaraglia, F.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

Mertz, L.

L. Mertz, Transformation in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1966).

Natale, V.

Neill, G. F.

Nishioka, N. S.

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nolt, I. G.

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, R. J. Donally, “Upper Atmosphere Emission Spectrum at Millimeter Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 236, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Puplett, E. F.

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Very-High-Resolution Far-Infrared Measurements of Atmospheric Emission from Aircraft,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 917 (1977).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, “Polarized Interferometric Spectrometry for the Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectrum,” Infrared Phys. 10, 105 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rader, C.

B. Gold, C. Rader, Digital Processing of Signals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

Radostitz, J. V.

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, R. J. Donally, “Upper Atmosphere Emission Spectrum at Millimeter Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 236, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Raine, K. W.

K. W. Raine, M. J. Downs, “Beam Splitter Coatings for Producing Phase Quadrature Interferometer Outputs,” Opt. Acta 25, 549 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Richards, P. L.

D. K. Lambert, P. L. Richards, “Martin-Puplett Interferometer: an Analysis,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1595 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, G. A.

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Robson, E. I.

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Roucher, J.

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

Rowley, W. R. C.

W. R. C. Rowley, “Bidirectional Counting for the Measurements of Laser Beat Frequencies,” J. Phys. E. 8, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sanderson, R. B.

Shannon, C.

C. Shannon, “Communication in the Presence of Noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Steel, W. H.

Swann, N. R. W.

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Trombetti, A.

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

Vanasse, G. A.

Vickers, D. G.

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ward, J. W.

Wolfe, W. L.

W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965).

Woody, D. P.

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Zachor, A. S.

Appl. Opt.

Astrophys. J.

H. A. Gebbie, W. J. Burroughs, J. E. Harries, R. H. Cameron, “Submillimeter Wave Spectroscopy of the Earth’s Atmosphere Above 39000 Feet,” Astrophys. J. 154, 405 (1969).
[CrossRef]

ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev.

J. P. Baluteau, E. Bussoletti, A. Langlet, J. Roucher, “Détermination de Spectres d’Emission Du Ciel Dans l’Infrarouge Entre 45 et 500 μm à Partir d’un Interféromètre Embarqué en avion,” ESRO/ELDO Sci. Tech. Rev. 4, 353 (1972).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

B. Carli, “Design of a Black Body Reference Standard for the Submillimeter Region,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-22, 1904 (1974).

Infrared Phys.

J. E. Harries, N. R. W. Swann, G. P. Carruthers, G. A. Robinson, “Measurement of the Submillimetre Stratospheric Spectrum from a Balloon Platform,” Infrared Phys. 13, 149 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, “Polarized Interferometric Spectrometry for the Millimeter and Submillimeter Spectrum,” Infrared Phys. 10, 105 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Hills et al., “Absolute Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption in the Range 100–1000 GHz,” Infrared Phys. 18, 819 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. Coron, “A New Type of Helium-Cooled Bolometer,” Infrared Phys. 16, 441 (1979).

Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “Fourier Spectroscopy of the Stratospheric Emission,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 263 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, “New Assignments in the Submillimeter Spectrum of the Stratosphere,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 385 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, A. Bonetti, B. M. Dinelli, F. Forni, “Submillimeter Detection of Stratospheric OH and Further Line Assignments in the Stratospheric Emission Spectrum,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 4, 475 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. El-Atawy, P. A. R. Ade, J. V. Radostitz, I. G. Nolt, “Evaluation of Composite Bolometers at 0.4 Kelvin,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 1, 459 (1980).
[CrossRef]

B. Carli, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, “Phase Error Correction in FT Spectroscopy of Spectra with Positive and Negative Intensities,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 3, 529 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

M. G. Baldecchi, A. Bonetti, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, F. Mencaraglia, “Atlas of Stratospheric Submillimeter Lines—1. The 7–20 cm−1 Interval,” J. Geophys. Res. (1984).

J. Infrared Millimeter Waves

M. G. Baldecchi, B. Carli, M. Carlotti, G. Di Lonardo, F. Forni, F. Mencaraglia, A. Trombetti, “High Resolution Molecular Spectroscopy in the Submillimeter Region,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 5, 281 (1984).

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E.

W. R. C. Rowley, “Bidirectional Counting for the Measurements of Laser Beat Frequencies,” J. Phys. E. 8, 223 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital.

B. Carli et al., “Preliminary Results of Measurements of Atmospheric Emission and Absorption at Infrared Wavelengths at Gornergrat,” Mem. Soc. Astron. Ital. 47, 101 (1976).

Nature (London)

B. Carli, D. H. Martin, E. F. Puplett, J. E. Harries, “Measurements of Ozone and Minor Atmospheric Constituents,” Nature (London) 257, 649 (1975).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Robson, D. G. Vickers, J. S. Huizinga, J. E. Beckman, P. E. Clegg, “Spectrum of the Cosmic Background Radiation between 3 mm and 800 μm,” Nature (London) 251, 591 (1974).
[CrossRef]

I. G. Nolt, J. V. Radostitz, R. J. Donally, “Upper Atmosphere Emission Spectrum at Millimeter Wavelengths,” Nature (London) 236, 445 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

K. W. Raine, M. J. Downs, “Beam Splitter Coatings for Producing Phase Quadrature Interferometer Outputs,” Opt. Acta 25, 549 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. P. Woody, J. P. Mather, N. S. Nishioka, P. L. Richards, “Measurement of the Spectrum of the Submillimeter Cosmic Background,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 34, 1036 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE

F. J. Harris, “On the Use of Windows for Armonic Analysis with Discrete Fourier Transform,” Proc. IEEE 66, 51 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IRE

C. Shannon, “Communication in the Presence of Noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10 (1949).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. Jacquinot, “New Developments in Interference Spectroscopy,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 23, 268 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt.

J. Connes, “Recherches sur la Spectroscopie par Transformation de Fourier,” Rev. Opt. 40, 171 (1961).

Other

L. Mertz, Transformation in Optics (Wiley, New York, 1966).

W. L. Wolfe, Handbook of Military Infrared Technology (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1965).

B. Gold, C. Rader, Digital Processing of Signals (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969).

J. Connes, ASPEN International Conference on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy, AFCRL-71-0019, S.R. 114, 83 (1970).

J. E. Harries, W. J. Burroughs, in Proceedings Infrared Techniques Conference, Reading (IERE, London, 1971), p. 271.

A. Bonetti, B. Carli, F. Mencaraglia, J. E. Harries, M. J. Bangham, D. H. Martin, Atmospheric Physics from Spacelab, J. J. Burger et al., Eds (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), pp. 329–338.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Layout of the polarizing interferometer used for atmospheric studies: A, mirror for scan of the atmospheric limb; B, input polarizer; C, blackbody source; D, mirror for measurement of zenithal emission; E, polarizing beam splitter; F, fixed roof mirror; G, moving roof mirror; H, output polarizer; L, condensing optics; M, detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sketch of the instrument showing the relative size of the different components and the modular structure of the design. Note on the right the tall liquid nitrogen cryostat that cools the calibration blackbody source and the long arm with the moving mirror. On the left, the twin system of condensing optics and detector cryostat (letters as in Fig. 1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Filter efficiency as a function of the frequency σ, normalized relatively to the Nyquist frequency σN = (4 vh)−1 in the case of RC integration (dashed lines) for three different values of the time constant τRC and in the case of real integration for a time τI (continuous line). Better efficiency is obtained for small values of σ relative to σN.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Block diagram of the mirror movement control: (1) roof mirror; (2) cube corner mirror; (3) carriage; (4) lead screw; (5) motor; (6) fixed cube corner mirror; (7) beam splitter; (8) mirror; (9) lens; and (10) photoconductor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Histogram of the mirror position error fitter by a Gaussian distribution.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagram of the condensing and detector optics.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Responsivity and noise as a function of wave number for the low-frequency detector (dotted line) and the high-frequency detector (continuous line).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Atmospheric emission measured from ~40-km altitude with a resolution of 0.0033 cm−1. The unapodized spectrum with one interpolation point is shown for three different limb scan angles: 3.6, 1.6, and 0° below the horizontal direction in (a), (b), and (c), respectively. The vibrational state is indicated in parentheses in the case of vibrationally excited transitions. The label O3 isot. indicates transitions due to O16O18O16. The negative dip in the center of the strong water vapor line is due to absorption within the instrument.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Sample of an atmospheric emission spectrum from ~40-km altitude looking in the horizontal direction. The unapodized spectrum makes it possible to resolve the two features of ozone at ~41.97 cm−1 that are 5.5 × 10−3 cm−1 apart.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δ σ Ω σ / 2 π ,
A = a ω / Ω 1 · 10 3 cm 2
d = 4 A / π 36 cm .
t 0 = - arctan 2 π ν τ RC 2 π ν
E RC = ( 2 τ RC [ cosh ( h / τ RC ) - cos ( 4 π v σ h ) ] h sinh ( h / τ RC ) [ 1 + ( 4 π v σ τ RC ) 2 ] ) 1 / 2 .
E I = τ I h sinc ( 2 π v σ h )
lim τ RC / h E RC = sinc ( 2 π v σ h ) .
E I ( τ I = h ) = sinc ( 2 π v σ h ) .
δ S 2 ( k Δ σ ) = ( 2 π E ) 2 1 n 1 k n [ k Δ σ S ( k Δ σ ) ] 2 .
I δ S 2 = 1 2 π E σ max 3 n m .
SNR 50 n m .
ϕ ( σ ) = 2 π σ ( ɛ + v τ I / 2 ) + arctan ( 4 π τ v σ ) .

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