Abstract

Continuous measurements of turbidity, skylight, solar aureole, and sky polarization have shown significant changes in optical effects since the spread of the El Chichon eruption volcanic cloud to northern mid-latitudes in late Oct. 1982. These effects persisted during 1983 except for the fading of twilight colors.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. L. Coulson, “Effects of the El Chichon Volcanic Cloud in the Stratosphere on the Polarization of Light from the Sky,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1036 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. L. Coulson, “Effects of the El Chichon Volcanic Cloud in the Stratosphere on the Intensity of Light from the Sky,” Appl. Opt. 22, 2265 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variations of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First Eighteen Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, “Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation,” Report AFCRL-TR-73-0613 (1973).
  5. SEAN Bulletin, Vol. 8, Nos. 3–12 (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1983).
  6. E. C. Pickering, “A New Form of Polarimeter,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 21, 294 (1886).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Meinel, M. Meinel, Sunsets, Twilights, and Evening Skies (Cambridge, U. P., London, 1983).
  8. F. E. Volz, “Twilights and Stratospheric Dust Before and After the Agung Eruption,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2505 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variations of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First Eighteen Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

1969

1886

E. C. Pickering, “A New Form of Polarimeter,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 21, 294 (1886).
[CrossRef]

Blättner, W. G.

W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, “Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation,” Report AFCRL-TR-73-0613 (1973).

Coulson, K. L.

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variations of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First Eighteen Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, A.

A. Meinel, M. Meinel, Sunsets, Twilights, and Evening Skies (Cambridge, U. P., London, 1983).

Meinel, M.

A. Meinel, M. Meinel, Sunsets, Twilights, and Evening Skies (Cambridge, U. P., London, 1983).

Pickering, E. C.

E. C. Pickering, “A New Form of Polarimeter,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 21, 294 (1886).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variations of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First Eighteen Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

Wells, M. B.

W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, “Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation,” Report AFCRL-TR-73-0613 (1973).

Appl. Opt.

J. Geophys. Res.

D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, “On the Temporal Variations of Stratospheric Aerosol Size and Mass During the First Eighteen Months Following the 1982 Eruption of El Chichon,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 4883 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci.

E. C. Pickering, “A New Form of Polarimeter,” Proc. Am. Acad. Arts Sci. 21, 294 (1886).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Meinel, M. Meinel, Sunsets, Twilights, and Evening Skies (Cambridge, U. P., London, 1983).

W. G. Blättner, M. B. Wells, “Monte Carlo Studies of Sky Radiation,” Report AFCRL-TR-73-0613 (1973).

SEAN Bulletin, Vol. 8, Nos. 3–12 (Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 1983).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Monthly averages of turbidity at Lexington and Bedford, Mass. for 1980 to May 1983. Vertical lines are estimated variances from 1980 and 1981 data. Note that the years start in the middle of the figure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normal (a) and volcanic (b) skylight scattering functions and color ratios. The normal scattering function has been measured in winter, but the steepness is more typical for summer. By winter 1983/84 the volcanic color ratio curve was 50% lower (due to decreased near IR scattering). Signs not connected by lines: molecular contribution subtracted. B500 = 0.43× aerosol optical thickness.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattering and polarization functions at λ0.50, 0.85, and 1.6 μm as well as λ dependence (0.2–10 μm) and mass distribution according to the size distribution model by Hofman and Rosen for 28 Jan. 19833 (and 1 Sept. 1983; personal communication).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Step filter values of sky brightness at the solar rim. The brightest values in (a) are generally not cirrus (ND ≥ 2.5), because it usually can be recognized on account of the narrowness of the aureole and its variation with time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aureole brightness in summer months 1975 and 1976 (a) and in early summer 1983 (b).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic presentation of solar aureoles.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Neutral points of sky polarization vs solar elevation; see inset in (a) for angular relations: (a) near normal conditions, Aug. to early Oct. 1982; (b) fully developed by late Nov. 1982 but without occasional secondary maximum at 40 solar depression (small abatement not before June 1983); (c) cases with secondary maximum in fall 1983 and normal neutral points, fall 1962.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Zenith polarization versus solar elevation at λ0.5 μm for Jan. and Feb. 1983 (dots), average trend Oct.–Dec. 1983, Pickering’s results 1884/84, and range of values in Hawaii in summer 1982.

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