Abstract

Variations in ground irradiance at frequencies higher than 0.1 Hz may severely degrade the performance of automatic imaging systems. For this reason measurements and analysis of fast variations in ground irradiance in the auroral region due to variable auroral emissions have been performed. The largest amplitudes and fastest variations are found to occur during the active phase of geomagnetic substorms and during pulsating auroral conditions, respectively. The power spectra of the variations show a rapid decrease toward higher frequencies. Pulsating auroral conditions contain more power at higher frequencies than do the active phase. On the average ~10% of the total power in the spectra is at frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. V. Jones, Aurora (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. I. Feldstein, “Auroral Oval,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1210 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. K. Myrabø, “Nocturnal Levels of Ground Illuminance in Auroral Regions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1881 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. K. Myrabø, Nattlys i nordomrādene, FFI/RAPPORT-82/3017, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982) (in Norwegian).
  5. H. K. Myrabø, “Typical Durations of Nightly Ground Illuminance Enhancement in the Auroral Zone,” FFI/RAPPORT-81/3010, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1981).
  6. A. Omholt, The Optical Aurora (Springer, Berlin, 1971).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. I. Afasofu, Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).
  9. W. Stoffregen, “East–West Drift of Auroral Forms Determined from All-Sky Camera Films,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 21, 257 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Kim, B. W. Currie, “Further Observations of Horizontal Movements of Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1366 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. S. Boyel, Thesis, U. Alaska, College (1969).
  13. A. Omholt, “Auroral Morphology,” in Cosmical Geophysics, A. Egeland, Ø. Holtet, A. Omholt, Eds. (Universitetsforlaget, 1973).
  14. V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, “Fluctuations in Brightness Form Quiet Form Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Royrvik, T. N. Davis, “Pulsating Aurora: Local and Global Morphology,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4720 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  17. H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. J. Hallinan, “Pulsating Aurora: Evidence of Noncollisional Thermalization of Precipitating Electrons,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3257 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. D. Johnstone, “Pulsating Aurora,” Nature London 274, 119 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. B. Murgray, “Some Properties of the Luminous Aurora as Measured by a Photoelectric Photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 64, 955 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. W. Gowell, S. I. Akasofu, “Irregular Pulsation of the Morning Sky Brightness,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 289 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. K. Myrabø, “An Automatic Data Acquisition System,” FFI/RAPPORT-82/3011, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982).

1982 (1)

1981 (3)

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. J. Hallinan, “Pulsating Aurora: Evidence of Noncollisional Thermalization of Precipitating Electrons,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3257 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

A. D. Johnstone, “Pulsating Aurora,” Nature London 274, 119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

O. Royrvik, T. N. Davis, “Pulsating Aurora: Local and Global Morphology,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Y. I. Feldstein, “Auroral Oval,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1210 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

R. W. Gowell, S. I. Akasofu, “Irregular Pulsation of the Morning Sky Brightness,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 289 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, “Fluctuations in Brightness Form Quiet Form Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. Stoffregen, “East–West Drift of Auroral Forms Determined from All-Sky Camera Films,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 21, 257 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1960 (1)

J. S. Kim, B. W. Currie, “Further Observations of Horizontal Movements of Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1366 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

W. B. Murgray, “Some Properties of the Luminous Aurora as Measured by a Photoelectric Photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 64, 955 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Afasofu, S. I.

S. I. Afasofu, Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).
[CrossRef]

Akasofu, S. I.

R. W. Gowell, S. I. Akasofu, “Irregular Pulsation of the Morning Sky Brightness,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 289 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Boyel, J. S.

J. S. Boyel, Thesis, U. Alaska, College (1969).

Chamberlain, J. W.

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

Currie, B. W.

J. S. Kim, B. W. Currie, “Further Observations of Horizontal Movements of Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1366 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Davis, T. N.

O. Royrvik, T. N. Davis, “Pulsating Aurora: Local and Global Morphology,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, C. N.

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Feldstein, Y. I.

V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Feldstein, “Auroral Oval,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1210 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gowell, R. W.

R. W. Gowell, S. I. Akasofu, “Irregular Pulsation of the Morning Sky Brightness,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 289 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Hallinan, T. J.

H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. J. Hallinan, “Pulsating Aurora: Evidence of Noncollisional Thermalization of Precipitating Electrons,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3257 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Johnstone, A. D.

A. D. Johnstone, “Pulsating Aurora,” Nature London 274, 119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jones, A. V.

A. V. Jones, Aurora (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. S.

J. S. Kim, B. W. Currie, “Further Observations of Horizontal Movements of Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1366 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Kitamura, T.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kokubun, S.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McEwen, D. J.

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Murgray, W. B.

W. B. Murgray, “Some Properties of the Luminous Aurora as Measured by a Photoelectric Photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 64, 955 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Myrabø, H. K.

H. K. Myrabø, “Nocturnal Levels of Ground Illuminance in Auroral Regions,” Appl. Opt. 21, 1881 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Myrabø, Nattlys i nordomrādene, FFI/RAPPORT-82/3017, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982) (in Norwegian).

H. K. Myrabø, “Typical Durations of Nightly Ground Illuminance Enhancement in the Auroral Zone,” FFI/RAPPORT-81/3010, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1981).

H. K. Myrabø, “An Automatic Data Acquisition System,” FFI/RAPPORT-82/3011, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982).

Oguti, T.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Omholt, A.

A. Omholt, The Optical Aurora (Springer, Berlin, 1971).
[CrossRef]

A. Omholt, “Auroral Morphology,” in Cosmical Geophysics, A. Egeland, Ø. Holtet, A. Omholt, Eds. (Universitetsforlaget, 1973).

Paulson, K. V.

K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, “Fluctuations in Brightness Form Quiet Form Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Royrvik, O.

O. Royrvik, T. N. Davis, “Pulsating Aurora: Local and Global Morphology,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Saka, O.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, “Fluctuations in Brightness Form Quiet Form Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Starkov, G. V.

V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.

H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. J. Hallinan, “Pulsating Aurora: Evidence of Noncollisional Thermalization of Precipitating Electrons,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3257 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stoffregen, W.

W. Stoffregen, “East–West Drift of Auroral Forms Determined from All-Sky Camera Films,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 21, 257 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Tsuruda, K.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Vorobjev, V. G.

V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Can. J. Phys. (5)

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. Oguti, S. Kokubun, K. Hayashi, K. Tsuruda, S. Machida, T. Kitamura, O. Saka, T. Watanabe, “Statistics of Pulsating Auroras on the Basis of All-Sky TV Data from Five Stations. I. Occurrence Frequency,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1150 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Kim, B. W. Currie, “Further Observations of Horizontal Movements of Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 38, 1366 (1960).
[CrossRef]

D. J. McEwen, C. N. Duncan, “A Campaign to Study Pulsating Aurora,” Can. J. Phys. 59, 1029 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Paulson, G. G. Shepherd, “Fluctuations in Brightness Form Quiet Form Auroras,” Can. J. Phys. 44, 837 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. (1)

W. Stoffregen, “East–West Drift of Auroral Forms Determined from All-Sky Camera Films,” J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 21, 257 (1961).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (4)

W. B. Murgray, “Some Properties of the Luminous Aurora as Measured by a Photoelectric Photometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 64, 955 (1959).
[CrossRef]

O. Royrvik, T. N. Davis, “Pulsating Aurora: Local and Global Morphology,” J. Geophys. Res. 82, 4720 (1977).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Stenbaek-Nielsen, T. J. Hallinan, “Pulsating Aurora: Evidence of Noncollisional Thermalization of Precipitating Electrons,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 3257 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Feldstein, “Auroral Oval,” J. Geophys. Res. 78, 1210 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Nature London (1)

A. D. Johnstone, “Pulsating Aurora,” Nature London 274, 119 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Space Sci. (2)

R. W. Gowell, S. I. Akasofu, “Irregular Pulsation of the Morning Sky Brightness,” Planet. Space Sci. 17, 289 (1969).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Vorobjev, G. V. Starkov, Y. I. Feldstein, “The Auroral Oval During the Substorm Development,” Planet. Space Sci. 24, 955 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. S. Boyel, Thesis, U. Alaska, College (1969).

A. Omholt, “Auroral Morphology,” in Cosmical Geophysics, A. Egeland, Ø. Holtet, A. Omholt, Eds. (Universitetsforlaget, 1973).

H. K. Myrabø, Nattlys i nordomrādene, FFI/RAPPORT-82/3017, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982) (in Norwegian).

H. K. Myrabø, “Typical Durations of Nightly Ground Illuminance Enhancement in the Auroral Zone,” FFI/RAPPORT-81/3010, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1981).

A. Omholt, The Optical Aurora (Springer, Berlin, 1971).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Afasofu, Physics of Magnetospheric Substorms (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1977).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Chamberlain, Physics of Aurora and Airglow (Academic, New York, 1961).

H. K. Myrabø, “An Automatic Data Acquisition System,” FFI/RAPPORT-82/3011, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (1982).

A. V. Jones, Aurora (Reidel, Dordrecht, 1974).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Example of pulsating auroral brightness variations. The data were taken in the N 2 + 1 Neg 4278 - Å emission with a field of view of 4°.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Occurrence probability of pulsating aurora as deduced from a smoothing of the results by Oguto et al. The data were obtained within the geomagnetic latitude range of 64–68°N.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scotopic (visual) response curve together with a typical spectral distribution of the ground irradiance in auroral regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Illuminance variations at the ground during the active phase of an auroral substorm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectral density of the variations in the ground illuminance during the active phase of auroral substorms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Illuminance variations at the ground during pulsating aurora.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Power spectral density of the variations in the ground illuminance during pulsating auroral conditions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

One minus the cumulative value of the power spectral density for the active phase of the substorm and for pulsating conditions, respectively.

Equations (2)

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1 - n = 0 n 1 p n , n 1 = 0 , 1 , ,
n = 0 n 1 p n = 1 .

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