Abstract

Existing techniques for the frequency stabilization of Nd: YAG lasers operating at 1.06 μm, and the high-gain amplification of radiation at that wavelength, make possible the construction of a coherent Doppler wind velocity lidar using Nd:YAG. Velocity accuracy and range resolution are better at 1.06 μm than at 10.6 μm at the same level of the SNR. Backscatter from the atmosphere at 1.06 μm is greater than that at 10.6 μm by ~2 orders of magnitude, but the quantum-limited noise is higher by 100 also. Near-field attenuation and turbulent effects are more severe at 1.06 μm. In some configurations and environments, the 1.06-μm wavelength may be the better choice, and there may be technological advantages favoring the use of solid-state lasers in satellite systems.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1983

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 22, 1655 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Clifford, L. Lading, Appl. Opt. 22, 1696 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kane, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1351 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

1981

S. F. Clifford, S. M. Wandzura, Appl. Opt. 20, 514 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

1979

D. S. Zrnic, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-17, 113 (1979).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Doviak, C. T. Jobson, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 697 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bair, C. H.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Brannon, P. J.

Brockman, P.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Bumgarner, B.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

T. J. Kane, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1351 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Sun, R. L. Byer, Opt. Lett. 7, 408 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, J.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W. P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, S. F.

Danielmeyer, H. G.

H. G. Danielmeyer, “Progress in Nd:YAG lasers,” in Lasers, Vol. 4, A. K. Levine, A. J. DeMaria, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976).

Deepak, A.

Doviak, R. J.

R. J. Doviak, C. T. Jobson, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 697 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Eckardt, R. C.

T. J. Kane, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1351 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Farrukh, U. O.

Franklin, F. R.

Grams, G. W.

Hall, F. F.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

Hamill, P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hardesty, R. M.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

Hess, R. V.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Jobson, C. T.

R. J. Doviak, C. T. Jobson, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 697 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Jones, E. D.

Kane, T. J.

T. J. Kane, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1351 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, M. L.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Kent, G. S.

G. S. Kent, G. K. Yue, U. O. Farrukh, A. Deepak, Appl. Opt. 22, 1655 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Kent, Institute for Atmospheric Optics & Remote Sensing, Hampton, Va.; personal communication.

Lading, L.

Laughman, L. M.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Lawrence, T. R.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

Livingston, J. M.

Lytle, C. D.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

McCormick, M. P.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McMaster, L. R.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Morley, B. M.

Patterson, E. M.

Pepin, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Post, M. J.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

Ray, P. S.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Richter, R. A.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

Russell, P. B.

Sirmans, D.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Staton, L. D.

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Sun, Y. L.

Swissler, T. J.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Walker, G. B.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Wandzura, S. M.

Yue, G. K.

Zrnic, D. S.

D. S. Zrnic, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-17, 113 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

M. P. McCormick, P. Hamill, T. J. Pepin, W. P. Chu, T. J. Swissler, L. R. McMaster, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 1038 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

T. J. Kane, R. C. Eckardt, R. L. Byer, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1351 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron.

D. S. Zrnic, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-17, 113 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol.

P. S. Ray, R. J. Doviak, G. B. Walker, D. Sirmans, J. Carter, B. Bumgarner, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1521 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

R. J. Doviak, C. T. Jobson, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 697 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

M. J. Post, R. A. Richter, R. M. Hardesty, T. R. Lawrence, F. F. Hall, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 300, 60 (1981).

R. V. Hess, P. Brockman, C. H. Bair, L. D. Staton, C. D. Lytle, L. M. Laughman, M. L. Kaplan, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 415, 52 (1983).

Other

G. S. Kent, Institute for Atmospheric Optics & Remote Sensing, Hampton, Va.; personal communication.

H. G. Danielmeyer, “Progress in Nd:YAG lasers,” in Lasers, Vol. 4, A. K. Levine, A. J. DeMaria, Eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1976).

R. M. Huffaker, Ed., “Feasibility Study of Satellite-Borne Lidar Global Wind Monitoring System,” NOAA Tech. Mem. ERL WPL-37 (1978).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Expected velocity error plotted as a function of SNR. Both pulse length and range gate are 3 μsec. Maximum unaliased velocity vNy is 25 m/sec, and rms wind variability vatm is 0.3 m/sec. Error at 10.6 μm is slightly more than 10 times as high as error at 1.06 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of coherent lidar system under construction at Stanford. The diode-pumped single-crystal laser oscillator achieves excellent frequency stability (200 kHz in 0.1 sec) without active stabilization. The amplifier makes use of a single slab which is multipassed to achieve high gain efficiently. Other components are conventional.

Equations (12)

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δ v = λ 4 π ( f 2 N L t ) 1 / 2 ( 2 π 3 / 2 W + 16 π 2 W 2 SNR + 1 SNR 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
W = 1 v Ny ( v b w 2 + v atm 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
δ v = ( 2 π 3 / 2 v atm λ / N L t ) 1 / 2 / 4 π .
δ v 2 δ R v atm λ / N .
δ v = λ ( π 1 / 2 / 2 N L ) 1 / 2 / 4 π t .
δ v δ R λ ( L / N ) 1 / 2 .
δ v = λ ( f / 2 N L t ) 1 / 2 / 4 π SNR .
δ v = ( λ v Ny / N L t ) 1 / 2 / 4 π SNR .
δ v 2 δ R = λ v Ny N · SNR 2
F 0 = 1 / ( 1 + D 2 / 4 ρ 0 2 ) ,
N = B h ν ,
SNR = η λ β E π d 2 / 8 R 2 B h ,

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