Abstract

A field test has been carried out to compare calculations made from lidar data to direct sensor measurements as tools for determining extinction as a function of altitude in the first kilometer of the earth’s atmosphere during the presence of haze layers and stratus clouds; 1.06-μm wavelength lidar returns were reduced using methods based on the stable solution to the lidar equation proposed by Klett. Direct sensor data were obtained from particulate spectrometers and a point visibility meter carried aloft by a tethered hydrogen balloon. The extinction profiles obtained from reduced lidar data are qualitatively in excellent agreement with those from the airborne payload. At moderate to high extinction values encountered in stratus clouds quantitative agreement is reasonably good; in haze conditions the agreement is less satisfactory, not only between the lidar results and those from the direct sensors, but between the results from the particle size distribution data and visibility meter data as well. Nevertheless, considering that extinction can vary over 4 orders of magnitude in such profiles, it is concluded that lidar is a quantitatively useful tool for studying stratus layers and is a particularly good means for determining ceiling altitude.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. The model referred to is a module called XSCALE in the Electro Optical Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL) developed by this laboratory. Details are in L. D. Duncan et al., U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0122, Vols. 1–5 (Nov.1982).
  2. J. D. Lindberg et al., “Early Wintertime European Fog and Haze: Report on Project Meppen 80,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0108 (Apr.1982).
  3. J. D. Klett, “Stable Analytical Inversion Solution for Processing Lidar Returns,” Appl. Opt. 20, 211 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Lindberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 305, 126 (1981).
  5. E. M. Measure, J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lentz, “The Use of Lidar as a Quantitative Remote Sensor of Aerosol Extinction,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0136 (Aug.1983).
  6. R. Rubio, E. M. Measure, “ASL Multiwavelength Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. TR-0137 (Aug.1983).
  7. W. J. Lentz, “The Visioceilometer: A Portable Visibility and Cloud Ceiling Height Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0105 (Jan.1982).
  8. W. J. Lentz, “Lidar Inversions for Atmospheric Extinction with the Visioceilometer,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.
  9. The specific particulate spectrometer models used were an ASASP-300, FSSP-100C, and OAP-200X, manufactured by Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colo.
  10. Visibility Meter MS05, manufactured by AEG-Telefunken in West Germany, described in G. H. Ruppersberg, “Registrierung der Sichtweite mit dem Streulichtschreiber,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 37, 252 (1964).
  11. M. Kays et al., “Effect of Errors in Observed Ceiling Heights Upon the Vertical Structure Model,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.

1981 (2)

1964 (1)

Visibility Meter MS05, manufactured by AEG-Telefunken in West Germany, described in G. H. Ruppersberg, “Registrierung der Sichtweite mit dem Streulichtschreiber,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 37, 252 (1964).

Duncan, L. D.

The model referred to is a module called XSCALE in the Electro Optical Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL) developed by this laboratory. Details are in L. D. Duncan et al., U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0122, Vols. 1–5 (Nov.1982).

Kays, M.

M. Kays et al., “Effect of Errors in Observed Ceiling Heights Upon the Vertical Structure Model,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.

Klett, J. D.

Lentz, W. J.

E. M. Measure, J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lentz, “The Use of Lidar as a Quantitative Remote Sensor of Aerosol Extinction,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0136 (Aug.1983).

W. J. Lentz, “The Visioceilometer: A Portable Visibility and Cloud Ceiling Height Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0105 (Jan.1982).

W. J. Lentz, “Lidar Inversions for Atmospheric Extinction with the Visioceilometer,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.

Lindberg, J. D.

J. D. Lindberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 305, 126 (1981).

J. D. Lindberg et al., “Early Wintertime European Fog and Haze: Report on Project Meppen 80,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0108 (Apr.1982).

E. M. Measure, J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lentz, “The Use of Lidar as a Quantitative Remote Sensor of Aerosol Extinction,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0136 (Aug.1983).

Measure, E. M.

E. M. Measure, J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lentz, “The Use of Lidar as a Quantitative Remote Sensor of Aerosol Extinction,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0136 (Aug.1983).

R. Rubio, E. M. Measure, “ASL Multiwavelength Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. TR-0137 (Aug.1983).

Rubio, R.

R. Rubio, E. M. Measure, “ASL Multiwavelength Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. TR-0137 (Aug.1983).

Ruppersberg, G. H.

Visibility Meter MS05, manufactured by AEG-Telefunken in West Germany, described in G. H. Ruppersberg, “Registrierung der Sichtweite mit dem Streulichtschreiber,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 37, 252 (1964).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

Visibility Meter MS05, manufactured by AEG-Telefunken in West Germany, described in G. H. Ruppersberg, “Registrierung der Sichtweite mit dem Streulichtschreiber,” Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 37, 252 (1964).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

J. D. Lindberg, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 305, 126 (1981).

Other (8)

E. M. Measure, J. D. Lindberg, W. J. Lentz, “The Use of Lidar as a Quantitative Remote Sensor of Aerosol Extinction,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0136 (Aug.1983).

R. Rubio, E. M. Measure, “ASL Multiwavelength Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. TR-0137 (Aug.1983).

W. J. Lentz, “The Visioceilometer: A Portable Visibility and Cloud Ceiling Height Lidar,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0105 (Jan.1982).

W. J. Lentz, “Lidar Inversions for Atmospheric Extinction with the Visioceilometer,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.

The specific particulate spectrometer models used were an ASASP-300, FSSP-100C, and OAP-200X, manufactured by Particle Measuring Systems, Inc., Boulder, Colo.

M. Kays et al., “Effect of Errors in Observed Ceiling Heights Upon the Vertical Structure Model,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep., in preparation.

The model referred to is a module called XSCALE in the Electro Optical Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL) developed by this laboratory. Details are in L. D. Duncan et al., U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0122, Vols. 1–5 (Nov.1982).

J. D. Lindberg et al., “Early Wintertime European Fog and Haze: Report on Project Meppen 80,” U.S. Army Atmos. Sci. Lab. Tech. Rep. TR-0108 (Apr.1982).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of extinction values at different altitudes as determined by the van mounted lidar (crosses), the handheld lidar (squares), from particle size distribution measurements (solid line), and from the visibility meter (diamonds) at 09:45–10:06,22 Jan.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of extinction values at different altitudes as determined by the handheld lidar (squares), from particle size distribution measurements (solid line), and from the visibility meter at 06:20–06:59, 21 Jan.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of lidar and balloon payload results in the case of a low haze layer at 10:05–10:29, 25 Jan.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lidar and balloon instrumentation extinction profiles in a case where light stratified haze is present. Data are for the time interval from 07:34 to 08:16, 10 Feb.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Light inhomogeneous haze as seen by the lidar and balloon systems. Data were collected from 09:42 to 10:12, 10 Feb.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of profiles of extinction vs altitude as determined by a lidar shot at a 30° elevation angle (curve A) and a shot fired vertically (curve B). Results are from the van mounted lidar system at 09:55, 22 Jan.

Tables (1)

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Table I Lidar System Characteristics

Equations (5)

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S ( r ) = ln [ r 2 P ( r ) ] ,
S ( r ) - S 0 = ln β ( r ) β 0 - 2 r 0 r σ ( r ) d r ,
d S ( r ) d r = 1 β ( r ) d β ( r ) d r - 2 σ ( r ) .
β = const σ k .
σ ( r ) = exp [ ( S - S m ) / k ] ( σ m ) - 1 + 2 k r r m exp [ ( S - S m ) / k ] d r ,

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