Abstract

Holographic characteristics of undeveloped dichromated gelatin films, working in real-time configurations, are described on the basis of experimental data. Applications in double-exposure holography, character recognition, edge enhancement, image subtraction, and phase conjugation are presented.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Rayleigh (John William Strutt), “Preliminary Note on the Reproduction of Diffraction Gratings by means of Photography,” Proc. R. Soc. London 20, 414 (1872).
  2. T. A. Shankoff, “Phase Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 7, 2101 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. M. Chang, “Dichromated Gelatin of Improved Optical Quality,” Appl. Opt. 10, 2550 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” 8, 963 (1969).
  5. B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. J. Chang, “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).
  7. B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).
  8. T. P. Sosnowski, H. Kogelnik, “Ultraviolet Hologram Recording in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2186 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, paper presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, New Orleans (1983).
  10. D. Meyerhofer, “Spatial Resolution of Relief Holograms in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 10, 416 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 297.
  12. R. G. Brandes, E. E. Francois, T. A. Shankoff, “Preparation of Dichromated Gelatin Films for Holography,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2346 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. O. Bryngdahl, “Can Detrimental Effects in Photographic Volume Holography be Compensated For?” Appl. Opt. 11, 195 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. N. Leith, A. Kozma, J. Upatnieks, J. Marks, N. Massey, “Holographic Data Storage in 3-D Media,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1303 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram-Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
  16. S. Lowenthal, Y. Belveaux, “Reconnaissance Des formes par Filtrage des Frequences Spatiales,” Opt. Acta 14, 245 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. Casasent, in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).
  18. D. Gabor et al., “Optical Image Synthesis by Holographic Fourier Transformation,” Phys. Lett. 18, 116 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. P. Huignard, F. Micheron, “High Sensitivity Read-Write Volume Holographic Storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, T. Valentin, “Time Average Holographic Interferometry with Photoconductive Electrooptic Bi12SiO20 Crystals,” Appl. Opt. 16, 2796 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, P. Aubourg, E. Spitz, “Phase-Conjugate Wavefront Generation Via Real-Time Holography in Bi12SiO20 Crystals,” Opt. Lett. 4, 21 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

1979 (3)

1977 (1)

1976 (1)

J. P. Huignard, F. Micheron, “High Sensitivity Read-Write Volume Holographic Storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

1971 (2)

1970 (1)

1969 (3)

L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” 8, 963 (1969).

R. G. Brandes, E. E. Francois, T. A. Shankoff, “Preparation of Dichromated Gelatin Films for Holography,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2346 (1969).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram-Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

1968 (1)

1967 (1)

S. Lowenthal, Y. Belveaux, “Reconnaissance Des formes par Filtrage des Frequences Spatiales,” Opt. Acta 14, 245 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

D. Gabor et al., “Optical Image Synthesis by Holographic Fourier Transformation,” Phys. Lett. 18, 116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1872 (1)

Rayleigh (John William Strutt), “Preliminary Note on the Reproduction of Diffraction Gratings by means of Photography,” Proc. R. Soc. London 20, 414 (1872).

Aubourg, P.

Belveaux, Y.

S. Lowenthal, Y. Belveaux, “Reconnaissance Des formes par Filtrage des Frequences Spatiales,” Opt. Acta 14, 245 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Brandes, R. G.

Bryngdahl, O.

Burckhardt, C. B.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 297.

Casasent, D.

D. Casasent, in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).

Chang, B. J.

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

B. J. Chang, C. D. Leonard, “Dichromated Gelatin for the Fabrication of Holographic Optical Elements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2407 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Chang, “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

Chang, M.

Collier, R. J.

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 297.

Francois, E. E.

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor et al., “Optical Image Synthesis by Holographic Fourier Transformation,” Phys. Lett. 18, 116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Herriau, J. P.

Huignard, J. P.

Kogelnik, H.

T. P. Sosnowski, H. Kogelnik, “Ultraviolet Hologram Recording in Dichromated Gelatin,” Appl. Opt. 9, 2186 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram-Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Kozma, A.

Leith, E. N.

Leonard, C. D.

Lessard, R. A.

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, paper presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, New Orleans (1983).

Lin, L. H.

L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” 8, 963 (1969).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 297.

Lowenthal, S.

S. Lowenthal, Y. Belveaux, “Reconnaissance Des formes par Filtrage des Frequences Spatiales,” Opt. Acta 14, 245 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Marks, J.

Massey, N.

Meyerhofer, D.

Micheron, F.

J. P. Huignard, F. Micheron, “High Sensitivity Read-Write Volume Holographic Storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rayleigh,

Rayleigh (John William Strutt), “Preliminary Note on the Reproduction of Diffraction Gratings by means of Photography,” Proc. R. Soc. London 20, 414 (1872).

Shankoff, T. A.

Solano, C.

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, paper presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, New Orleans (1983).

Sosnowski, T. P.

Spitz, E.

Upatnieks, J.

Valentin, T.

Appl. Opt. (9)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. P. Huignard, F. Micheron, “High Sensitivity Read-Write Volume Holographic Storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, “Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram-Gratings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).

Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films (1)

L. H. Lin, “Hologram Formation in Hardened Dichromated Gelatin Films,” 8, 963 (1969).

Opt. Acta (1)

S. Lowenthal, Y. Belveaux, “Reconnaissance Des formes par Filtrage des Frequences Spatiales,” Opt. Acta 14, 245 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “DCG Holograms and Their Applications,” Opt. Eng. 19, 642 (1980).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Gabor et al., “Optical Image Synthesis by Holographic Fourier Transformation,” Phys. Lett. 18, 116 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London (1)

Rayleigh (John William Strutt), “Preliminary Note on the Reproduction of Diffraction Gratings by means of Photography,” Proc. R. Soc. London 20, 414 (1872).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

B. J. Chang, “DCG as a Holographic Storage Medium,” Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 177, 71 (1979).

Other (3)

C. Solano, R. A. Lessard, paper presented at the OSA Annual Meeting, New Orleans (1983).

R. J. Collier, C. B. Burckhardt, L. H. Lin, Optical Holography (Academic, London, 1971), p. 297.

D. Casasent, in Handbook of Optical Holography, H. J. Caulfield, Ed. (Academic, New York, 1979).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for permanent recording–readout.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Interference gratings diffraction efficiency vs exposure. Grating spatial frequency is a parameter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum obtained diffraction efficiency vs grating spatial frequency.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DCG amplitude transmittance (red light) vs exposure (three wavelengths considered); two dichromate concentrations (2 and 4%) were utilized.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized diffraction efficiency vs reading light incidence angle. Grating spatial frequency is a parameter.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interference pattern obtained from a phase object double-exposure hologram.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real-time edge enhancement using DCG films: (a) optical configuration; (b) edge enhancement of character C.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Character recognition. (a) Original object, matched filter was made for character A. (b) Autocorrelation term obtained with a pattern recognition frequency plane correlator.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Optical configuration to perform real-time pattern recognition using DCG films.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diagram showing the arrangement to perform image subtraction.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Photographs showing the holographic images after the subtraction has been done: (a); original image; (b) after subtraction; (c) after erasure.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental geometry to generate a phase conjugate wave front in real time.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Real-time phase conjugate image.

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