Abstract

The refractive indices of a commercially available specimen of single-crystal MgF2 were determined for both the ordinary and extraordinary rays at selected wavelengths from 0.2026 to 7.04 μm. Measurements were made by means of the minimum-deviation method on a precision spectrometer near 19°C. The experimentally determined index values for each polarization were fitted to a three-term Sellmeier-type dispersion equation of the form n2-1=Ajλ2(λ2-λj2), where n is the refractive index, λ is the wavelength of interest, λj is the calculated wavelength of an oscillator, and Aj is the strength of the oscillator at λj. The birefringence was computed as a function of wavelength from the calculated index values obtained for the two polarizations. The dispersion coefficients were also determined for the 0 ray and for the birefringence. The results of this study are compared with previously reported work on the refractive properties of MgF2.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense.
  2. Presented in part at the Oct. 1979 Meeting of the Optical Society of America [M. J. Dodge, “Refractive Properties of Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1460A (1979)].
  3. Contribution of the National Bureau of Standards, not subject to copyright.
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  15. The use of trade names in this paper is for identification purposes only and does not constitute recommendation by the National Bureau of Standards.
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  25. I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).
  26. V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).
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    [CrossRef]

1980

H. H. Li, “Refractive Index of Alkaline Earth Halides and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives,” J. Appl. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 247 (1980).

1979

Presented in part at the Oct. 1979 Meeting of the Optical Society of America [M. J. Dodge, “Refractive Properties of Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1460A (1979)].

1977

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Fluoride Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).

1972

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, “Optical Properties of MgO and MgF2 in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

1969

1968

1967

1966

1964

W. C. Johnson, “Magnesium Fluoride Polarizing Prism for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963

1962

1961

1958

A. Duncanson, R. W. H. Stevenson, “Some Properties of Magnesium Fluoride Crystallized from the Melt,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 72, 1001 (1958).
[CrossRef]

1953

W. S. Rodney, R. J. Spindler, “Refractive Index of Cesium Bromide for Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Wavelengths,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 3, 123 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Abramson, A. S.

Afanasev, I. I.

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

Andrianova, L. K.

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

Arakawa, E. T.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, “Optical Properties of MgO and MgF2 in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Buckner, D. A.

D. A. Buckner, H. C. Hafner, N. J. Kreidl, “Hot-Pressing Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 435 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Chandrasekharan, V.

Damany, H.

Dodge, M. J.

Presented in part at the Oct. 1979 Meeting of the Optical Society of America [M. J. Dodge, “Refractive Properties of Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1460A (1979)].

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, M. J. Dodge, Optical Characterization Final Technical Report, February 1, 1978–September 30, 1978, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 993 (Feb.1979), p. 63.

Duncanson, A.

A. Duncanson, R. W. H. Stevenson, “Some Properties of Magnesium Fluoride Crystallized from the Melt,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 72, 1001 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, A.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, M. J. Dodge, Optical Characterization Final Technical Report, February 1, 1978–September 30, 1978, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 993 (Feb.1979), p. 63.

Forbes, F. F.

Glass, A. J.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Fluoride Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hafner, H. C.

D. A. Buckner, H. C. Hafner, N. J. Kreidl, “Hot-Pressing Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 435 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, W. F.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, “Optical Properties of MgO and MgF2 in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Heath, D. F.

Herzberger, M.

Horowitz, D.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, M. J. Dodge, Optical Characterization Final Technical Report, February 1, 1978–September 30, 1978, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 993 (Feb.1979), p. 63.

Johnson, W. C.

W. C. Johnson, “Magnesium Fluoride Polarizing Prism for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kreidl, N. J.

D. A. Buckner, H. C. Hafner, N. J. Kreidl, “Hot-Pressing Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 435 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Li, H. H.

H. H. Li, “Refractive Index of Alkaline Earth Halides and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives,” J. Appl. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 247 (1980).

Mamontov, I. Ya.

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

McBride, W. R.

Milam, D.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Fluoride Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Morris, G. C.

Olsen, A. L.

Phillips, W. G.

Reiterov, V. M.

V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

Rodney, W. S.

W. S. Rodney, R. J. Spindler, “Refractive Index of Cesium Bromide for Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Wavelengths,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 3, 123 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Rosberry, F. W.

Sacher, P. A.

Safonova, L. N.

V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).

Salzberg, C. D.

Shishatskaya, L. P.

V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).

Spindler, R. J.

W. S. Rodney, R. J. Spindler, “Refractive Index of Cesium Bromide for Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Wavelengths,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 3, 123 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, D. L.

Stevenson, R. W. H.

A. Duncanson, R. W. H. Stevenson, “Some Properties of Magnesium Fluoride Crystallized from the Melt,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 72, 1001 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Stravroudis, O. N.

Sutton, L. E.

Teska, T. M.

T. M. Teska, University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; private communication.

Waxler, R. M.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, M. J. Dodge, Optical Characterization Final Technical Report, February 1, 1978–September 30, 1978, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 993 (Feb.1979), p. 63.

Weber, M. J.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Fluoride Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Williams, M. W.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, “Optical Properties of MgO and MgF2 in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Wirick, M.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Milam, M. J. Weber, A. J. Glass, “Nonlinear Refractive Index of Fluoride Crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 822 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

D. A. Buckner, H. C. Hafner, N. J. Kreidl, “Hot-Pressing Magnesium Fluoride,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 45, 435 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Chem. Ref. Data

H. H. Li, “Refractive Index of Alkaline Earth Halides and Its Wavelength and Temperature Derivatives,” J. Appl. Chem. Ref. Data 9, 247 (1980).

J. Appl. Phys.

W. F. Hanson, E. T. Arakawa, M. W. Williams, “Optical Properties of MgO and MgF2 in the Extreme Ultraviolet Region,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 1661 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand.

W. S. Rodney, R. J. Spindler, “Refractive Index of Cesium Bromide for Ultraviolet, Visible, and Infrared Wavelengths,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 3, 123 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Phys. Soc.

A. Duncanson, R. W. H. Stevenson, “Some Properties of Magnesium Fluoride Crystallized from the Melt,” Proc. Phys. Soc. 72, 1001 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

W. C. Johnson, “Magnesium Fluoride Polarizing Prism for the Vacuum Ultraviolet,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 35, 1375 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Opt. Technol.

V. M. Reiterov, L. N. Safonova, L. P. Shishatskaya, “Effect of Heat Treatment on the Transmission of Fluorite Crystal Windows in the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region,” Sov. J. Opt. Technol. 43, 431 (1976).

Sov. Phys. Solid State

I. I. Afanasev, L. K. Andrianova, I. Ya. Mamontov, V. M. Reiterov, “Photoelastic Properties and Residual Stresses in Magnesium Fluoride Crystals,” Sov. Phys. Solid State 17, 2006 (1976).

Other

Ref. 9, Sec. 10, pp. 10–103.

W. G. Driscoll, W. Vaughn, Eds., Handbook of Optics, Sec. 7 (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978), pp. 7–95.

T. M. Teska, University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory; private communication.

A. Feldman, D. Horowitz, R. M. Waxler, M. J. Dodge, Optical Characterization Final Technical Report, February 1, 1978–September 30, 1978, Nat. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Tech. Note 993 (Feb.1979), p. 63.

This work was supported in part by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Defense.

Contribution of the National Bureau of Standards, not subject to copyright.

The use of trade names in this paper is for identification purposes only and does not constitute recommendation by the National Bureau of Standards.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the modified Gaertner precision spectrometer showing the optical path. The prism is rotated at one-half of the rotation rate of the telescope assembly by gear system, thus maintaining the condition of minimum-deviation for any wavelength. The scanning device drives the assembly which scans the spectrum to identify lines or bands and determine their approximate scale positions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Refractive index vs wavelength (μm) for the O and E rays of single-crystal MgF2 as determined in the current study and for two specimens of hot-pressed MgF2. Single-crystal MgF2: O ray (—); E ray (– –). Hot-pressed MgF2: Buckner et al., ref. 19 (○); Herzberger and Salzberg, ref. 20 (□).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the refractive index vs wavelength (μm) of single-crystal MgF2 as determined in other studies with those obtained in the current study. The differences in indices for the O ray are shown in (a) and for the E ray in (b). The zero line in both cases represents the values from the present study; NBS (1966), ref. 12 (0); Duncanson et al., ref. 10 (△); Teska, ref. 18, (●).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Birefringence β (nEnO) of single-crystal MgF2 vs wavelength (μm). Current study (—); NBS (1966), ref. 12 (○); Teska, ref. 18 (●); Chandrasekharan and Damany, ref. 13 (△).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dispersion coefficient of refractive index vs wavelength (μm) for the O-ray of single-crystal MgF2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dispersion coefficient of the birefringence vs wavelength (μm): (a) −Δβ/Δλ from 0.1148 to 0.2 μm; (b) −Δβ/Δλ from 0.15 to 7.0 μm. Current study, (—); Chandrasekharan and Damany, ref. 13 (- - -).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Birefringence relative to wavelength β/λ vs wavelength (μm). Current study (—); Chandrasekharan and Damany, ref. 13(- - -).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Constants of the Dispersion Equation for MgF2 at 19°C

Tables Icon

Table II Refractive Index and Birefringence of MgF2 at 19°C

Equations (1)

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n 2 - 1 = j A j λ 2 ( λ 2 - λ j 2 ) - 1 ,

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