Abstract

Comparisons of contrast sensitivity functions between young (20–30-yrs) and old (60–70-yrs) subjects show that, on the average, the older subjects require about twice the contrast as the younger to detect gratings of high and intermediate spatial frequencies. The question of the source of this visual loss is addressed by calculating the loss of contrast due to intraocular light scatter. This, in turn, is estimated using measurements of disability glare as a function of glare angle and observer age. It is shown that the measured loss of vision with age is consistent with the hypothesis that it is due to increased intraocular light scatter.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Arundale, “An Investigation into the Variation of Human Contrast Sensitivity with Age and Ocular Pathology,” J. Br. Ophthalmol. 62, 213 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).
  3. R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. P. Ginsburg, D. W. Evans, M. W. Cannon, “Effects of Age on Contrast Sensitivity,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, Tucson, AZ, 18–22 Oct. (1982).
  5. C. D. Utterback, S. Mitra, J. Price, “Spatial Vision with Human Aging,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, New Orleans, 17–21 Oct. (1983).
  6. A. J. Fisher, A. W. Christie, “A Note on Disability Glare,” Vision Res. 5, 565 (1965).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).
  8. G. Longobardi, “On the Variability of the Disability Glare Factor,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 28, 653 (1973).
  9. R. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).
  10. F. L. Van Nes, M. A. Bouman, “Spatial Modulation Transfer in the Human Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. A. Fry, “The Optical Performance of the Human Eye,” Prog. Opt. 8, 53 (1970).
  12. J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Walraven, “Spatial Characteristics of Chromatic Induction; the Segregation of Lateral Effects from Straylight Artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. J. Vos, “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1965).
  15. J. J. Vos, P. Padmos, “Straylight, Contrast Sensitivity and the Critical Object in Relation to Tunnel Entrance Lighting,” paper presented at Twentieth Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (1983).
  16. R. Hess, G. Woo, “Vision Through Cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 428 (1978).
  17. M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular Scattered Light and Visual Performance as a Function of Age,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 44, 717 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
    [PubMed]

1982

R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979

G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).

1978

K. Arundale, “An Investigation into the Variation of Human Contrast Sensitivity with Age and Ocular Pathology,” J. Br. Ophthalmol. 62, 213 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. Hess, G. Woo, “Vision Through Cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 428 (1978).

1976

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974

L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

1973

G. Longobardi, “On the Variability of the Disability Glare Factor,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 28, 653 (1973).

J. Walraven, “Spatial Characteristics of Chromatic Induction; the Segregation of Lateral Effects from Straylight Artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

G. A. Fry, “The Optical Performance of the Human Eye,” Prog. Opt. 8, 53 (1970).

1967

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular Scattered Light and Visual Performance as a Function of Age,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 44, 717 (1967).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Van Nes, M. A. Bouman, “Spatial Modulation Transfer in the Human Eye,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 57, 401 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1965

A. J. Fisher, A. W. Christie, “A Note on Disability Glare,” Vision Res. 5, 565 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, M. J.

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular Scattered Light and Visual Performance as a Function of Age,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 44, 717 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Arundale, K.

K. Arundale, “An Investigation into the Variation of Human Contrast Sensitivity with Age and Ocular Pathology,” J. Br. Ophthalmol. 62, 213 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bouman, M. A.

Cannon, M. W.

A. P. Ginsburg, D. W. Evans, M. W. Cannon, “Effects of Age on Contrast Sensitivity,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, Tucson, AZ, 18–22 Oct. (1982).

Christie, A. W.

A. J. Fisher, A. W. Christie, “A Note on Disability Glare,” Vision Res. 5, 565 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Derefeldt, G.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).

Evans, D. W.

A. P. Ginsburg, D. W. Evans, M. W. Cannon, “Effects of Age on Contrast Sensitivity,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, Tucson, AZ, 18–22 Oct. (1982).

Fisher, A. J.

A. J. Fisher, A. W. Christie, “A Note on Disability Glare,” Vision Res. 5, 565 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fry, G. A.

G. A. Fry, “The Optical Performance of the Human Eye,” Prog. Opt. 8, 53 (1970).

Ginsburg, A. P.

A. P. Ginsburg, D. W. Evans, M. W. Cannon, “Effects of Age on Contrast Sensitivity,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, Tucson, AZ, 18–22 Oct. (1982).

Hess, R.

R. Hess, G. Woo, “Vision Through Cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 428 (1978).

Hutman, L.

R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lennerstrand, G.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).

Li, S.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Longobardi, G.

L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).

G. Longobardi, “On the Variability of the Disability Glare Factor,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 28, 653 (1973).

Lundh, B.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).

Mitra, S.

C. D. Utterback, S. Mitra, J. Price, “Spatial Vision with Human Aging,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, New Orleans, 17–21 Oct. (1983).

Owsley, C.

R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Padmos, P.

J. J. Vos, P. Padmos, “Straylight, Contrast Sensitivity and the Critical Object in Relation to Tunnel Entrance Lighting,” paper presented at Twentieth Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (1983).

Price, J.

C. D. Utterback, S. Mitra, J. Price, “Spatial Vision with Human Aging,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, New Orleans, 17–21 Oct. (1983).

Ronchi, L.

L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).

Sekuler, R.

R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sigelman, J.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Spector, A.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Sulli, R.

L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).

Utterback, C. D.

C. D. Utterback, S. Mitra, J. Price, “Spatial Vision with Human Aging,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, New Orleans, 17–21 Oct. (1983).

van Meeteren, A.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Nes, F. L.

Vos, J. J.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular Scattered Light and Visual Performance as a Function of Age,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 44, 717 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Vos, “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1965).

J. J. Vos, P. Padmos, “Straylight, Contrast Sensitivity and the Critical Object in Relation to Tunnel Entrance Lighting,” paper presented at Twentieth Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (1983).

Walraven, J.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial Characteristics of Chromatic Induction; the Segregation of Lateral Effects from Straylight Artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weale, R.

R. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).

Woo, G.

R. Hess, G. Woo, “Vision Through Cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 428 (1978).

Acta Ophthalmol.

G. Derefeldt, G. Lennerstrand, B. Lundh, “Age Variations in Normal Human Contrast Sensitivity,” Acta Ophthalmol. 57, 679 (1979).

Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt.

R. Sekuler, C. Owsley, L. Hutman, “Assessing Spatial Vision of Older People,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 59, 961 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Allen, J. J. Vos, “Ocular Scattered Light and Visual Performance as a Function of Age,” Am. J. Optom. Physio. Opt. 44, 717 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi

L. Ronchi, R. Sulli, G. Longobardi, “The Disability Glare Factor: Calculated vs Experimental Data,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 29, 965 (1974).

G. Longobardi, “On the Variability of the Disability Glare Factor,” Atti Fond. Giorgio Ronchi 28, 653 (1973).

Invest. Ophthalmol.

A. Spector, S. Li, J. Sigelman, “Age-Dependent Changes in the Molecular Size of Human Lens Proteins and Their Relationship to Light Scatter,” Invest. Ophthalmol. 13, 795 (1974).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci.

R. Hess, G. Woo, “Vision Through Cataracts,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 17, 428 (1978).

J. Br. Ophthalmol.

K. Arundale, “An Investigation into the Variation of Human Contrast Sensitivity with Age and Ocular Pathology,” J. Br. Ophthalmol. 62, 213 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Prog. Opt.

G. A. Fry, “The Optical Performance of the Human Eye,” Prog. Opt. 8, 53 (1970).

Vision Res.

J. J. Vos, J. Walraven, A. van Meeteren, “Light Profiles of a Foveal Image of a Point Source,” Vision Res. 16, 215 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Walraven, “Spatial Characteristics of Chromatic Induction; the Segregation of Lateral Effects from Straylight Artifacts,” Vision Res. 13, 1739 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fisher, A. W. Christie, “A Note on Disability Glare,” Vision Res. 5, 565 (1965).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

R. Weale, The Aging Eye (Lewis, London, 1963).

A. P. Ginsburg, D. W. Evans, M. W. Cannon, “Effects of Age on Contrast Sensitivity,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, Tucson, AZ, 18–22 Oct. (1982).

C. D. Utterback, S. Mitra, J. Price, “Spatial Vision with Human Aging,” paper presented at annual meeting of the Optical Society of America, New Orleans, 17–21 Oct. (1983).

J. J. Vos, “On Mechanisms of Glare,” Thesis, Soesterberg, The Netherlands (1965).

J. J. Vos, P. Padmos, “Straylight, Contrast Sensitivity and the Critical Object in Relation to Tunnel Entrance Lighting,” paper presented at Twentieth Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (1983).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental points are from Derefeldt et al.2 Each point is the ratio of contrast sensitivity for the older age group (60–70) to that for the younger (20–40): ○, binocular viewing; ×, monocular viewing. The smooth curves are ratios of calculated modulation transfer functions for A = 65 to those for A = 30 (see text). The modulation transfer functions have been calculated using the glare functions of Walraven [Eq. (6)] for three different values of the width parameter α: smooth curve, α = 0.13; broken curve, α = 0.098; dotted curve, α = 0.087.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( θ ) = P o ( θ ) [ 1 - f ( A ) ] + P s ( θ ) f ( A ) .
2 π ( π 180 ) 2 0 d θ θ P ( θ ) = 1 .
L ( θ ) = π / 90 0 d ψ P ( θ 2 + ψ 2 ) .
M ( w ) = ( π 90 ) 0 cos 2 π w θ L ( θ ) d θ .
M o ( w ) = 2 π ( β - sin β cos β ) ,
cos β = 180 π λ w d .
σ ( θ ) = L eq / E = 29 / ( α + θ ) 2.8 .
σ ( θ ; A ) = 1.16 A / ( α + θ ) 2.8 .
f ( A ) = 2 π ( π / 180 ) 2 0 d θ θ σ ( θ ; A ) = 1.54 × 10 - 3 ( A / α 0.8 ) .
P s ( θ ) = σ ( θ ; A ) / f ( A ) .

Metrics