Abstract

The procedure and the results of realizing a low-level photometric scale down to 1 × 10−6 lx with standardized detectors are described. The detectors are two photomultipliers (one of them operated in the photon counting mode) and two operational amplifier/photodiode combinations. The relative spectral sensitivity of these detectors was modified to closely approximate the V(λ) curve, and the absolute monochromatic irradiance sensitivity at 633 nm was determined using self-calibrated Si photodiodes. The estimated uncertainty of the measurement of illuminance using these standardized detectors is about ±1%. A low-level photometric source that can provide illuminance of 1.5 × 10−1 lx−5 × 10−7 lx or luminance of 3 × 102 cd/m2−2 × 10−3 cd/m2 has been developed. The repeatability of calibrations of the low-level photometers was ±0.3%.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. “Light as an Ecological Factor: II,” Sixteenth Symposium of the British Ecological Society, 26–28 Mar. 1974.
  2. International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publication 17 (1970).
  3. Conference Generale des poids et mesures, Sixteenth Compte Rendu (1979–10).
  4. N. Ooba, Res. Electrotech. Lab. No. 675 (Dec.1967).
  5. T.-B. Li, in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium of Photon-Detectors, IMEKO Secretariat H-1371, P.O.B. 457, Budapest.
  6. E. F. Zalewski, J. Geist, “Silicon Photodiode Absolute Spectral Response Self-Calibration,” Appl. Opt. 19, 1214 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, A. R. Schaefer, “Spectral Response Self-Calibration and Interpolation of Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3795 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. T.-B. Li, “The Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Results on the Self-Calibration Technique of Silicon Photodiode,” Acta Opt Sinica 2, 452 (1982).
  9. J. Geist, E. Liang, A. R. Schaefer, “Complete Collection of Minority Carriers from the Inversion Layer in Induced Junction Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4879 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (1)

T.-B. Li, “The Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Results on the Self-Calibration Technique of Silicon Photodiode,” Acta Opt Sinica 2, 452 (1982).

1981 (1)

J. Geist, E. Liang, A. R. Schaefer, “Complete Collection of Minority Carriers from the Inversion Layer in Induced Junction Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4879 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

1970 (1)

International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publication 17 (1970).

1967 (1)

N. Ooba, Res. Electrotech. Lab. No. 675 (Dec.1967).

Geist, J.

Li, T.-B.

T.-B. Li, “The Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Results on the Self-Calibration Technique of Silicon Photodiode,” Acta Opt Sinica 2, 452 (1982).

T.-B. Li, in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium of Photon-Detectors, IMEKO Secretariat H-1371, P.O.B. 457, Budapest.

Liang, E.

J. Geist, E. Liang, A. R. Schaefer, “Complete Collection of Minority Carriers from the Inversion Layer in Induced Junction Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4879 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ooba, N.

N. Ooba, Res. Electrotech. Lab. No. 675 (Dec.1967).

Schaefer, A. R.

J. Geist, E. Liang, A. R. Schaefer, “Complete Collection of Minority Carriers from the Inversion Layer in Induced Junction Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4879 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Geist, E. F. Zalewski, A. R. Schaefer, “Spectral Response Self-Calibration and Interpolation of Silicon Photodiodes,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3795 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zalewski, E. F.

Acta Opt Sinica (1)

T.-B. Li, “The Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Results on the Self-Calibration Technique of Silicon Photodiode,” Acta Opt Sinica 2, 452 (1982).

Appl. Opt. (2)

International Lighting Vocabulary (1)

International Lighting Vocabulary, CIE Publication 17 (1970).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. Geist, E. Liang, A. R. Schaefer, “Complete Collection of Minority Carriers from the Inversion Layer in Induced Junction Diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4879 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Res. Electrotech. Lab. No. 675 (1)

N. Ooba, Res. Electrotech. Lab. No. 675 (Dec.1967).

Other (3)

T.-B. Li, in Proceedings, Tenth International Symposium of Photon-Detectors, IMEKO Secretariat H-1371, P.O.B. 457, Budapest.

Conference Generale des poids et mesures, Sixteenth Compte Rendu (1979–10).

“Light as an Ecological Factor: II,” Sixteenth Symposium of the British Ecological Society, 26–28 Mar. 1974.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Change of α as a function of the color temperature of the source.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the instrument for calibrating absolute spectral irradiance sensitivity at 633 nm: 1, He–Ne laser; 2, mirror; 3, laser power stabilizer; 4, Nicol prism; 5, integrating sphere; 6, reference Si photodiode; 7, measured detector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of a low-level photometry apparatus: 1, source; 2, integrating sphere; 3, entrance or exit adjustable aperture; 4, shutter; 5–8, removable neutral attenuation filters; 9, flange.

Tables (7)

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Table I Color Correction Factor for CIE Illuminant A and the Relative Sensitivity of the Standardized Detectors

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Table II Self-Calibration Results for Two Inversion Layer Si Photodiodes at 633 nm

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Table III Comparison of the Absolute Sensitivities for the Same Si Photodiode Calibrated with Difference Methods

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Table IV Absolute irradiance Sensitivity S633, Illuminance Sensitivity Sv, and Measuring Range of the Detectors

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Table V Error Analysis of a Low-Level Photometric Measurement

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Table VI Comparison of the Measurement of Illuminance

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Table VII Comparison of the Low-Level Photometric Scale with the Normal Photometric Scale

Equations (3)

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S v = 1 K 555 · 1 α · S 555 = 1 K 555 · 1 α · S 633 · s 555 s 633 .
R ( λ ) = 0.806549 λ [ 1 - ρ ( λ ) ] ɛ 0 ( λ ) ɛ R ( λ ) 1 - [ 1 - ɛ 0 ( λ ) ] [ 1 - ɛ R ( λ ) ] .
R ( λ ) = 0.806549 λ [ 1 - ρ ( λ ) ] ɛ R ( λ ) .

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