Abstract

In Part 1 of this study1 it was shown theoretically that the aerosol size distribution may be derived from the single scattering radiance around a point source. In this paper preliminary results of aerosol size distribution derived by this method are presented. A solar blind radiometer designed and constructed for aureole measurements is described. It is shown that, if the light source is unobscured, a large systematic error may result, especially at small angles. This suggests the use of an obscured source. A comparison with the aerosol size distribution derived from transmittance measurements gives good agreement. A correlation is found between estimated visibility and aureole measurements.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Trakhovsky, U. P. Oppenheim, “Determination of Aerosol Size Distribution from Observation of the Aureole Around a Point Source. 1: Theoretical,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1003 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. S. Zachor, “Aureole Radiance Field About a Source in a Scattering–Absorbing Medium,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1911 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Riewe, A. E. S. Green, “Ultraviolet Aureole Around a Source at a Finite Distance,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1923 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. E. Trakhovsky, U. P. Oppenheim, “Time-Dependent Aureole About a Source in a Multiple-Scattering Medium,” Appl. Opt. 22, 1633 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. M. E. Neer, J. M. Schlupf, “The Development and Testing of an Ultraviolet Voice Communication System,” Technical Report ARAP-394 (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., N.J., 1979).
  6. W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Trakhovsky, S. G. Lipson, A. D. Devir, “Atmospheric Aerosols Investigated by Inversion of Experimental Transmittance Data,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3005 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. R. Zatzick, “How to Make Every Photon Count,” Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. 4, 20 (June1972).

1984 (1)

1983 (1)

1982 (2)

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

E. Trakhovsky, S. G. Lipson, A. D. Devir, “Atmospheric Aerosols Investigated by Inversion of Experimental Transmittance Data,” Appl. Opt. 21, 3005 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

1972 (1)

M. R. Zatzick, “How to Make Every Photon Count,” Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. 4, 20 (June1972).

Devir, A. D.

Green, A. E. S.

Jaeger, W. P.

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, S. G.

Nakai, J.

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Neer, M. E.

M. E. Neer, J. M. Schlupf, “The Development and Testing of an Ultraviolet Voice Communication System,” Technical Report ARAP-394 (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., N.J., 1979).

Nguen, T. T.

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oppenheim, U. P.

Riewe, F.

Ross, W. S.

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Schlupf, J. M.

M. E. Neer, J. M. Schlupf, “The Development and Testing of an Ultraviolet Voice Communication System,” Technical Report ARAP-394 (Aeronautical Research Associates of Princeton, Inc., N.J., 1979).

Shapiro, J. U.

W. S. Ross, W. P. Jaeger, J. Nakai, T. T. Nguen, J. U. Shapiro, “Atmospheric Optical Propagation—an Integrated Approach,” Opt. Eng. 21, 775 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Trakhovsky, E.

Zachor, A. S.

Zatzick, M. R.

M. R. Zatzick, “How to Make Every Photon Count,” Electro-Opt. Syst. Des. 4, 20 (June1972).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical diagram of the radiometer and block diagram of the data processing.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High resolution angular radiance measurements with unobscured source at different wavelengths: a, λ = 2537 Å, b, λ = 3130 Å.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental verification of the existence of the tail of FOV of the radiometer: (a) the radiometer pointed directly at the source; (b) the same as (a) but with an attenuator inserted; (c) the radiometer turned 1° away from the source; (d) the same as (c) but attenuator removed.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimentally measured normalized scattered radiance vs observation angle. A least-squares linear fit gives A = −1.954 ± 0.140, C = 0.139 ± 0.009 deg−1, α = 0.07.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aerosol size distribution on 14 July 1983 using the inversion procedure from A, aureole measurements; B, transmittance measurements.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Experimentally measured scattered radiance vs observation angle during hazy conditions (circles, approximated by solid line with A = −1.657 ±0.047, C = 0.055 ±0.003 deg−1, α = 0.05); clear conditions (squares, approximated by dashed line with A = −1.815 ± 0.048, C = 0.032 ± 0.003 deg−1, α = 0.05).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Aerosol size distribution on 8 Aug. 1983 using the inversion procedure during A, hazy conditions; B, clear conditions.

Equations (8)

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γ min = D + d 2 ( R - r ) ,
β ( γ + ɛ ) = - γ [ B 1 ( γ , R ) R sin γ I ] - γ [ L ( γ , R ) ] .
S B = B 1 ( γ , R ) · Ω · A · K ,
S I = I R 2 · A · K .
L ( γ , R ) = S B · sin γ S I · R · Ω .
L ( γ , R ) = exp [ ( A - C γ ) ] ,
β ( θ ) = C exp { [ A - C ( θ - ɛ ) ] } = C exp ( - C θ ) ,
α = 1 10 i = 1 10 ( 1 - A - C γ i ln L i ) 2 .

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