Abstract

Wide-angle photographic lens systems utilizing axial gradient elements are studied. The resulting two- and three-element designs are compared with a six-element homogeneous wide-angle lens designed by Nippon Kogaku K.K., U.S. Patent 4,099,850. Practical considerations for manufacturing are also discussed.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. J. Sands, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1436 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. T. Moore, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 1143 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. G. Atkinson, S. N. Houde-Walter, D. T. Moore, D. P. Ryan, J. M. Stagaman, Appl. Opt. 21, 993 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. D. Forer, S. N. Houde-Walter, J. J. Miceli, D. T. Moore, M. J. Nadeau, D. P. Ryan, J. M. Stagaman, N. J. Sullo, Appl. Opt. 22, 407 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. D. Fantone, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1978).
  6. D. P. Ryan-Howard, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1983).
  7. P. J. Sands, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 777 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1977 (1)

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

Atkinson, L. G.

Fantone, S. D.

S. D. Fantone, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1978).

Forer, J. D.

Houde-Walter, S. N.

Miceli, J. J.

Moore, D. T.

Nadeau, M. J.

Ryan, D. P.

Ryan-Howard, D. P.

D. P. Ryan-Howard, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1983).

Sands, P. J.

Stagaman, J. M.

Sullo, N. J.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Homogeneous wide-angle lens, U.S. Patent 4,099,850. (b) Key: 488 nm, - - -; 588 nm, —; 656 nm, ·····; vertical axis ±0.1-mm full scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polychromatic MTF for homogeneous wide-angle lens. Key: diffraction limit,. ·····; axis, —; 0.7 field, T — — S — ····· 1.0 field, T — — —; S — ····· —.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-element gradient wide-angle lens. (b) Key: vertical axis ±0.1-mm full scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Three-element gradient wide-angle lens—case I, gradients on rear surfaces of first and third elements. (b) Key: 488 nm, - - -; 588 nm, —; 656 nm, ·····; vertical axis ±0.1-mm full scale.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-element gradient wide-angle lens—case I, gradients on rear surfaces of first and third elements. Dispersion of the gradient distribution is included. (b) Key: 488 nm, - - -; 588 nm, —; 656 nm, ·····; vertical axis ±0.1-mm full scale.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three-element gradient wide-angle lens—case II, gradients on front surface of second element and rear surface of third element. Dispersion of the gradient distribution is included. (b) Key: 488 nm, - - -; 588 nm, —; 656 nm, ·····; vertical axis ±0.1-mm full scale.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polychromatic MTF for three-element gradient wide-angle—case I, shown in Fig. 5. Key: diffraction limit, ·····; axis, —; 0.7 field, T — — S — ·····; 1.0 field, T — — — S — ····· —.

Tables (2)

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Table I First-Order Properties

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Table II Three-Element Gradient Wide Angle Shown in Fig. 5

Equations (2)

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N ( x , y , z ) = N 00 + N 01 z + N 02 z 2 + + N 10 ( x 2 + y 2 ) + N 20 ( x 2 + y 2 ) 2 + ,
V i j = N i j λ d N i j λ f - N i j λ c .

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