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  1. G. L. Clarke, E. J. Denton, “Light and Animal Life,” in The Sea, Vol. 1, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962), pp. 456–468.
  2. B. P. Bowden, E. M. Kampa, “Bioluminescence,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 445–469.
  3. G. L. Clarke, L. R. Breslau, “Studies of Luminescent Flashing in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, and in the Gulf of Naples Using a Portable Bathyphotometer,” Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco 1171, 1 (1960).
  4. W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. L. Clarke, G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of Illumination at Great Depths and at Night in the Atlantic Ocean by Means of a New Bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189 (1956).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. M. Kampa, B. P. Bowden, “Light Generation in a Sonic-Scattering Layer,” Deep Sea Res. 4, 73 (1956).
  7. E. J. Bulban, “Airborne Sensor Detects Fish at Night,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 110, 60 (1979).
  8. L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).
  9. G. L. Clarke, C. J. Hubbard, “Quantitative Records of the Luminescent Flashing of Oceanic Animals of Great Depths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 163 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).
  11. K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
    [Crossref]
  12. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, “Effect of Aerosol Variation on Radiance in the Earth’s Atmosphere–Ocean System,” Appl. Opt. 11, 1598 (1972).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

1979 (1)

E. J. Bulban, “Airborne Sensor Detects Fish at Night,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 110, 60 (1979).

1972 (1)

1960 (1)

G. L. Clarke, L. R. Breslau, “Studies of Luminescent Flashing in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, and in the Gulf of Naples Using a Portable Bathyphotometer,” Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco 1171, 1 (1960).

1959 (1)

G. L. Clarke, C. J. Hubbard, “Quantitative Records of the Luminescent Flashing of Oceanic Animals of Great Depths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 163 (1959).
[Crossref]

1957 (1)

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[Crossref]

1956 (2)

G. L. Clarke, G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of Illumination at Great Depths and at Night in the Atlantic Ocean by Means of a New Bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189 (1956).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kampa, B. P. Bowden, “Light Generation in a Sonic-Scattering Layer,” Deep Sea Res. 4, 73 (1956).

Ackerson, K. L.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Bowden, B. P.

E. M. Kampa, B. P. Bowden, “Light Generation in a Sonic-Scattering Layer,” Deep Sea Res. 4, 73 (1956).

B. P. Bowden, E. M. Kampa, “Bioluminescence,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 445–469.

Breslau, L. R.

G. L. Clarke, L. R. Breslau, “Studies of Luminescent Flashing in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, and in the Gulf of Naples Using a Portable Bathyphotometer,” Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco 1171, 1 (1960).

Broenkow, W. W.

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

Bulban, E. J.

E. J. Bulban, “Airborne Sensor Detects Fish at Night,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 110, 60 (1979).

Carovillano, R. C.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Case, K. M.

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[Crossref]

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

Clarke, G. L.

G. L. Clarke, L. R. Breslau, “Studies of Luminescent Flashing in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, and in the Gulf of Naples Using a Portable Bathyphotometer,” Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco 1171, 1 (1960).

G. L. Clarke, C. J. Hubbard, “Quantitative Records of the Luminescent Flashing of Oceanic Animals of Great Depths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 163 (1959).
[Crossref]

G. L. Clarke, G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of Illumination at Great Depths and at Night in the Atlantic Ocean by Means of a New Bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189 (1956).
[Crossref]

G. L. Clarke, E. J. Denton, “Light and Animal Life,” in The Sea, Vol. 1, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962), pp. 456–468.

Craven, J. D.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Denton, E. J.

G. L. Clarke, E. J. Denton, “Light and Animal Life,” in The Sea, Vol. 1, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962), pp. 456–468.

Eather, R. H.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

English, M. R.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Frank, L. A.

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Hubbard, C. J.

G. L. Clarke, C. J. Hubbard, “Quantitative Records of the Luminescent Flashing of Oceanic Animals of Great Depths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 163 (1959).
[Crossref]

Kampa, E. M.

E. M. Kampa, B. P. Bowden, “Light Generation in a Sonic-Scattering Layer,” Deep Sea Res. 4, 73 (1956).

B. P. Bowden, E. M. Kampa, “Bioluminescence,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 445–469.

Kattawar, G. W.

Krenz, R. T.

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

Lewitus, A. J.

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

Plass, G. N.

Wertheim, G. K.

G. L. Clarke, G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of Illumination at Great Depths and at Night in the Atlantic Ocean by Means of a New Bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189 (1956).
[Crossref]

Yarbrough, M. A.

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

Zweifel, P. F.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Aviat. Week Space Technol. (1)

E. J. Bulban, “Airborne Sensor Detects Fish at Night,” Aviat. Week Space Technol. 110, 60 (1979).

Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco (1)

G. L. Clarke, L. R. Breslau, “Studies of Luminescent Flashing in Phosphorescent Bay, Puerto Rico, and in the Gulf of Naples Using a Portable Bathyphotometer,” Bull, Inst. Oceanogr. Monaco 1171, 1 (1960).

Deep Sea Res. (2)

G. L. Clarke, G. K. Wertheim, “Measurements of Illumination at Great Depths and at Night in the Atlantic Ocean by Means of a New Bathyphotometer,” Deep Sea Res. 3, 189 (1956).
[Crossref]

E. M. Kampa, B. P. Bowden, “Light Generation in a Sonic-Scattering Layer,” Deep Sea Res. 4, 73 (1956).

Limnol. Oceanogr. (1)

G. L. Clarke, C. J. Hubbard, “Quantitative Records of the Luminescent Flashing of Oceanic Animals of Great Depths,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 4, 163 (1959).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

W. W. Broenkow, A. J. Lewitus, M. A. Yarbrough, R. T. Krenz, “Particle Fluorescence and Bioluminescence Distributions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific,” Nature 302, 329 (1983).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

K. M. Case, “Transfer Problems and the Reciprocity Principle,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 651 (1957).
[Crossref]

Space Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, K. L. Ackerson, M. R. English, R. H. Eather, R. C. Carovillano, “Global Auroral Imaging Instrumentation for the Dynamics Explorer Mission,” Space Sci. Instrum. 5, 369 (1981).

Other (3)

G. L. Clarke, E. J. Denton, “Light and Animal Life,” in The Sea, Vol. 1, M. N. Hill, Ed. (Interscience, New York, 1962), pp. 456–468.

B. P. Bowden, E. M. Kampa, “Bioluminescence,” in Optical Aspects of Oceanography, N. G. Jerlov, E. S. Nielsen, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1974), pp. 445–469.

K. M. Case, P. F. Zweifel, Linear Transport Theory (Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1967).

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Equations (16)

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( ξ · ) L ( r , ξ ) + c ( r ) L ( r , ξ ) = Ω β ( r , ξ ξ ) L ( r , ξ ) d Ω ( ξ ) + Q ( r , ξ ) ,
c ( r ) = a ( r ) + b ( r ) ,
b ( r ) = Ω β ( r , ξ ξ ) d Ω ( ξ ) .
β ( r , ξ ξ ) = β ( r , - ξ - ξ ) ,
d Ω d S n · ξ [ L 2 ( ρ , ξ ) L 1 ( ρ , - ξ ) - L 1 ( ρ , ξ ) L 2 ( ρ , - ξ ) ] = d Ω d V [ L 2 ( r , - ξ ) Q 1 ( r , ξ ) - L 1 ( r , ξ ) Q 2 ( r , - ξ ) ] .
Q 1 ( r , ξ ) = n ( r ) J 0 ( r )             and             L 1 ( inc ) ( ρ , ξ ) = 0
Q 2 ( r , ξ ) = 0             and             L 2 ( inc ) ( ρ , ξ ) = F 0 δ ( ξ - ξ 0 ) ,
ξ 0 · n F 0 L 1 ( ρ , - ξ 0 ) d S = E 02 ( r ) n ( r ) J 0 ( r ) d V ,
E 02 ( r ) = Ω L 2 ( r , ξ ) d Ω .
ξ 0 · n F 0 L 1 ( ρ , - ξ 0 ) d S = E 02 ( r ) n ( r ) J 0 ( r ) d V .
ξ 0 · n F 0 L 1 ( ρ , - ξ 0 ) d S = E 02 ( z ) n ( r ) J 0 ( r ) d V .
n ( r ) = N J 0 δ ( r - r b ) .
L 1 ( top , - ξ 0 ) d S = [ 1 / ξ 0 · n F 0 ] E 02 ( z b ) N J 0
K 0 = - d [ ln E 0 ] / d z ,
d / d z b { ln [ L 1 ( top , - ξ 0 ) d S ] } = - K 0 ( z b , ξ 0 ) ,
[ L 1 ( top , - ξ 0 ) d S ] z 2 = [ L 1 ( top , - ξ 0 ) d S ] z 1 × exp [ - z 1 z 2 K 0 ( z , ξ 0 ) d z ] .

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