Abstract

It is shown that a high-gain CO2-laser chain made of rapidly excited high-pressure amplifiers can be operated without interface isolators. Saturable absorbers are then used only to prevent amplification of front-end leakage and are required to absorb solely at the working frequencies. CH3OH, CH3OD, CH3F, CCl2F2, and HCOOH have been characterized in view of pulse contrast enhancement around 9.4 μm in a multiline multiband laser chain. The optimum pressure, the saturating fluence, the small-signal absorption coefficient, and its ratio over the saturated absorption coefficient are given for many CO2-laser lines.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, E. Foley, J. Figueira, Opt. Lett. 2, 39 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Tajima, J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Phys. Today 36 (2), 19 (1981).
  7. R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. H. Gardner, S. E. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1137 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. R. Phipps, S. J. Thomas, Opt. Lett. 1, 93 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Woskoboinikow, H. C. Praddande, W. J. Mulligan, Opt. Lett. 4, 199 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. M. R. Green et al., J. Phys. D 13, 1399 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.
  15. N. H. Burnett, M. C. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 241 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. F. Figueira, S. J. Czuchlewski, C. R. Phipps, S. J. Thomas, Appl. Opt. 20, 838 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. E. J. McLellan, J. F. Figueira, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1213 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1735 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. T. V. Kung, M. Sirchis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 206 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. F. Caudle, J. R. Izatt, Can. J. Phys. 58, 569 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Model MJA5 supplied by Sciencetek Inc., C. P. 9700, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, G1V 4C2.
  23. Dupont Trademark.
  24. G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1968).
  25. T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
    [CrossRef]

1982

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1735 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. F. Figueira, S. J. Czuchlewski, C. R. Phipps, S. J. Thomas, Appl. Opt. 20, 838 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today 36 (2), 19 (1981).

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Gardner, S. E. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

M. R. Green et al., J. Phys. D 13, 1399 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Caudle, J. R. Izatt, Can. J. Phys. 58, 569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

1978

R. T. V. Kung, M. Sirchis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 206 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Tajima, J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, E. Foley, J. Figueira, Opt. Lett. 2, 39 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1976

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Burnett, M. C. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 241 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1969

T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Albritton, J. R.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Alcock, J. A.

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Baldis, H. A.

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, M.

J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.

Bodner, S. E.

J. H. Gardner, S. E. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bollen, W. M.

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burnett, N. H.

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Burnett, M. C. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 241 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Caudle, G. F.

G. F. Caudle, J. R. Izatt, Can. J. Phys. 58, 569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Cheo, P. K.

T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Czuchlewski, S. J.

J. F. Figueira, S. J. Czuchlewski, C. R. Phipps, S. J. Thomas, Appl. Opt. 20, 838 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, E. Foley, J. Figueira, Opt. Lett. 2, 39 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, J. M.

T. Tajima, J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

DeGroot, J. S.

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Duxbury, G.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Figueira, J.

Figueira, J. F.

Foley, E.

Freund, S. M.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, J. H.

J. H. Gardner, S. E. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gilbert, J.

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, J. C.

J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. R.

M. R. Green et al., J. Phys. D 13, 1399 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Haglund, R. F.

R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Herzberg, G.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1968).

Izatt, J. R.

G. F. Caudle, J. R. Izatt, Can. J. Phys. 58, 569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

James, D. J.

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kung, R. T. V.

R. T. V. Kung, M. Sirchis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 206 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lachambre, J.-L.

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1735 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.

Lavigne, P.

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1735 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.

Lee, A. Y.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Luhmann, N. C.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McLellan, E. J.

E. J. McLellan, J. F. Figueira, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1213 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, K.

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mulligan, W. J.

Nilson, J. A.

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Novak, A. V.

R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nowak, A. V.

J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, E. Foley, J. Figueira, Opt. Lett. 2, 39 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Obenschain, S. P.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Oka, T.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Otis, G.

J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.

Pepin, H.

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phipps, C. R.

Praddande, H. C.

Rheault, F.

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, M.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

N. H. Burnett, M. C. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 241 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Römheld, M.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sirchis, M.

R. T. V. Kung, M. Sirchis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 206 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Spielman, R. B.

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, T.

T. Tajima, J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tan, K. O.

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, S. J.

Tiedje, J. T.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Williams, E. A.

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Woskoboinikow, P.

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Gilbert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 265 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. T. V. Kung, M. Sirchis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 32, 206 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Chang, C. H. Wang, P. K. Cheo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 157 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Phys.

G. F. Caudle, J. R. Izatt, Can. J. Phys. 58, 569 (1980).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. F. Haglund, A. V. Novak, S. J. Czuchlewski, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1799 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Goldstein, S. J. Czuchlewski, A. V. Nowak, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1299 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

P. Lavigne, J.-L. Lachambre, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 1735 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc.

S. M. Freund, G. Duxbury, M. Römheld, J. T. Tiedje, T. Oka, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 52, 38 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D

M. R. Green et al., J. Phys. D 13, 1399 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

R. B. Spielman, W. M. Bollen, K. Mizuno, J. S. DeGroot, Phys. Rev. Lett. 46, 821 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Gardner, S. E. Bodner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1137 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Lee, Y. Nishida, N. C. Luhmann, S. P. Obenschain, B. Gu, M. Rhodes, J. R. Albritton, E. A. Williams, Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 319 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Tajima, J. M. Dawson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 267 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

Phys. Today 36 (2), 19 (1981).

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

F. Rheault, J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, H. Pepin, H. A. Baldis, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 46, 1244 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Burnett, M. C. Richardson, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 241 (1976).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Tan, D. J. James, J. A. Nilson, N. H. Burnett, J. A. Alcock, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 51, 776 (1980).
[CrossRef]

E. J. McLellan, J. F. Figueira, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 50, 1213 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J.-L. Lachambre, P. Lavigne, M. Blanchard, G. Otis, Defense Research Establishment, Valcartier, Canada, Report TN-2119/74.

Model MJA5 supplied by Sciencetek Inc., C. P. 9700, Ste-Foy, Québec, Canada, G1V 4C2.

Dupont Trademark.

G. Herzberg, Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, Vol. 2 (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1968).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low-resolution small-signal transmission spectra: (a) CH3OH at 25 Torr; (b) CH3OD at 25 Torr; (c) CH3F at 50 Torr and CCl2F2 at 20 Torr; (d) HCOOH at 20 Torr. The cell length is 10 cm, and the resolution 0.5 cm−1. The gain envelope of the CO2 laser is illustrated in (d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical cw small-signal transmission variations with the pressure in CH3OH and CH3OD. ○: CH3OH, 9P(12) line; □: CH3OH, 9P(18) line; △: CH3OD, 9P(28) line. The cell length is 10 cm in all cases..

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission of 1.2-nsec, 9P(12) pulses through CH3OH as a function of the incident fluence for a L × P product of 1000 cm Torr. ○: P = 20 Torr, L = 50 cm; △: P = 100 Torr, L = 10 cm. The dashed line represents the cw small-signal transmission of the 10-cm cell. The small-signal transmission of the 50-cm cell is ~10−5.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission of 1.2-nsec, 9P(18) pulses through CH3OH as a function of the incident fluence for a L × P product of 1000 cm Torr. ○: P = 20 Torr, L = 50 cm; △: P = 100 Torr, L = 10 cm. The dashed line gives the cw small-signal transmission; it is the same for both cases.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission of 1.2-nsec, 9P(28) pulses through CH3OD as a function of the incident fluence for a L × P product of 1000 cm Torr. ○: P = 20 Torr, L = 50 cm; △: P = 100 Torr, L = 10 cm. The dashed lines represent the cw small-signal transmissions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission of 1.2-nsec, 9P(20) pulses through CH3F as a function of the incident fluence. ○: P = 25 Torr, L = 10 cm; △: P = 50 Torr, L = 10 cm; □: P = 75 Torr, L = 10 cm; ■: P = 15 Torr, L = 50 cm. The dashed lines represent the cw small-signal transmissions corresponding to the ○ and △ conditions. For the □ and ■ conditions, the cw small-signal transmission is ~6 × 10−6.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Residual absorption coefficient per unit length of CH3F as a function of the pressure at the 9P(20) laser frequency. Departure from linear increase occurs above 50 Torr. The measurements were made at fluences ~500 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmission of 1.2-nsec, 9R(22) pulses through CCl2F2 as a function of the incident fluence for a L × P product of 800 cm Torr. ○: P = 16 Torr, L = 50 cm;, △: P = 80 Torr, L = 10 cm; □: P = 400 Torr, L = 2 cm. The dashed line gives the cw small-signal transmission level; it is the same for the three cases.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmission of 1.2-nsec pulses through HCOOH as a function of the incident fluence. ○: 9R(20) line, P = 7.5 Torr, L = 50 cm; △: 9R(20) line, P = 15 Torr, L = 50 cm; □: 10P(20) line, P = 20 Torr, L = 50 cm.

Tables (1)

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Table I Summary of Absorption and Saturation Data

Equations (1)

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L a 1 α 0 [ g 0 L g - γ - ln ( C 0 I p I 0 ) ] ,

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