Abstract

Single-layer antireflection (AR) coating films are used to transform semiconductor injection lasers into different kinds of active device. For example, a laser whose emitting facet reflectivities (one or both) are reduced to zero is transformed into a superluminescent diode or an optical amplifier, respectively. AR coated lasers are also very desirable in various configurations of a laser in an external cavity or as sources for optical fiber sensor applications. High quality antireflection coatings of laser facets have been achieved using sputtered silicon nitride. The emitting facets of InGaAsP lasers at 1.3 and 1.55 μm as well as of AlGaAs lasers at 0.85 μm were coated. The reflectivities achieved were consistently in the 0.01–0.03% range. Similar films were also used to AR coat InGaAs PIN detectors thereby significantly increasing their responsivity.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  2. See, for example, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919 (1981), or D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Kaplan, P. P. Deimel, “Exact calculation of the reflection coefficient for coated optical waveguide devices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press.
  5. R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press (Dec.1983).
  6. G. Eisenstein, “Theoretical design of single layer antireflection coatings on laser facets,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (Feb.1984).
  7. I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. C. Dautremont-Smith, L. C. Feldman, Thin Solid Films, 105, 187 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).
  10. K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. C. Dautremont-Smith, AT&T Bell Laboratories; private communication.
  12. L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  13. See, for example, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970).
  14. F. Reizman, W. Van gleder, Solid State Electron 10, 625 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).
  16. E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).
  17. R. A. Laff, Appl. Opt. 10, 968 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. J. Mogab, E. Lugujjo, J. Appl. Phys. 47, No. 4 (Apr.1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Posadowski, Thin Solid films 69, 149 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. J. Kominak, J. Electrochemical Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 1271 (1975).
  21. O. S. Heavens, Thin Film Physics (Methuen, New York, 1970).
  22. J. E. Goell, R. D. Standley, Appl. Opt. 11, 2502 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. I. P. Kaminow et al., Low threshold InGaAsP ridge waveguide laser at 1.3 μm. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, No. 8 (Aug.1983).
  24. D. Marcuse, I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1234 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1984

G. Eisenstein, “Theoretical design of single layer antireflection coatings on laser facets,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (Feb.1984).

1983

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, L. C. Feldman, Thin Solid Films, 105, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow et al., Low threshold InGaAsP ridge waveguide laser at 1.3 μm. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, No. 8 (Aug.1983).

1981

D. Marcuse, I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1234 (1981).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919 (1981), or D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980

Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).

W. Posadowski, Thin Solid films 69, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1977

E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).

1976

C. J. Mogab, E. Lugujjo, J. Appl. Phys. 47, No. 4 (Apr.1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).

G. J. Kominak, J. Electrochemical Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 1271 (1975).

1972

1971

1967

F. Reizman, W. Van gleder, Solid State Electron 10, 625 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ando, S.

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bube, R. H.

Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).

Cheng, T. T.

C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).

Chin, A. K.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, R. H.

R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press (Dec.1983).

Dautremont-Smith, W. C.

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, L. C. Feldman, Thin Solid Films, 105, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, AT&T Bell Laboratories; private communication.

Deimel, P. P.

D. R. Kaplan, P. P. Deimel, “Exact calculation of the reflection coefficient for coated optical waveguide devices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press.

Dentai, A. G.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Eisenstein, G.

G. Eisenstein, “Theoretical design of single layer antireflection coatings on laser facets,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (Feb.1984).

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Fahrenbruch, A. L.

Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).

Feldman, L. C.

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, L. C. Feldman, Thin Solid Films, 105, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Genkina, N. A.

E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).

Glang, R.

See, for example, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970).

Goell, J. E.

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Thin Film Physics (Methuen, New York, 1970).

Kaminow, I. P.

See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow et al., Low threshold InGaAsP ridge waveguide laser at 1.3 μm. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, No. 8 (Aug.1983).

D. Marcuse, I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1234 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kaplan, D. R.

D. R. Kaplan, P. P. Deimel, “Exact calculation of the reflection coefficient for coated optical waveguide devices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press.

Kimura, T.

See, for example, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919 (1981), or D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kominak, G. J.

G. J. Kominak, J. Electrochemical Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 1271 (1975).

Laff, R. A.

Lugujjo, E.

C. J. Mogab, E. Lugujjo, J. Appl. Phys. 47, No. 4 (Apr.1976).
[CrossRef]

Maissel, L. I.

See, for example, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970).

Marcuse, D.

D. Marcuse, I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1234 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Minneci, G.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mogab, C. J.

C. J. Mogab, E. Lugujjo, J. Appl. Phys. 47, No. 4 (Apr.1976).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).

Oe, K.

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, P. M.

C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).

Posadowski, W.

W. Posadowski, Thin Solid films 69, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reizman, F.

F. Reizman, W. Van gleder, Solid State Electron 10, 625 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shitova, E. V.

E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).

Singh, S.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Standley, R. D.

Stulz, L.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Stulz, L. W.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, K.

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, Ming-Jong

Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).

Tsubaki, K.

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, R. S.

See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van gleder, W.

F. Reizman, W. Van gleder, Solid State Electron 10, 625 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Van Uitert, L. G.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

See, for example, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919 (1981), or D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Yasneva, I. A.

E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).

Zydzik, G.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Bell. Syst. Tech. J.

G. Eisenstein, “Theoretical design of single layer antireflection coatings on laser facets,” Bell. Syst. Tech. J. (Feb.1984).

Electron. Lett.

See, for example, R. S. Tucker, G. Eisenstein, I. P. Kaminow, Electron. Lett. 19, 552 (1983).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. W. Stulz, A. G. Dentai, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 78 (1983).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, Y. Yamamoto, T. Kimura, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 919 (1981), or D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 63 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow, G. Eisenstein, L. Stulz, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 493 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Kaminow et al., Low threshold InGaAsP ridge waveguide laser at 1.3 μm. IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, No. 8 (Aug.1983).

D. Marcuse, I. P. Kaminow, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1234 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

Ming-Jong Tsai, A. L. Fahrenbruch, R. H. Bube, J. Appl. Phys. 51 (May1980).

C. J. Mogab, E. Lugujjo, J. Appl. Phys. 47, No. 4 (Apr.1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol.

C. J. Mogab, P. M. Petroff, T. T. Cheng, J. Electrochem. Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 815 (1975).

J. Electrochemical Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol.

G. J. Kominak, J. Electrochemical Soc. Solid State Sci. Technol. 122, 1271 (1975).

J. Vacuum Sci. Technol.

L. G. Van Uitert, A. K. Chin, G. Zydzik, S. Singh, G. Minneci, J. Vacuum Sci. Technol. 1, 72 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K. Tsubaki, S. Ando, K. Oe, K. Sugiyama, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 18, 1191 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. USSR

E. V. Shitova, I. A. Yasneva, N. A. Genkina, Opt. Spectrosc. USSR 43, 140 (1977).

Solid State Electron

F. Reizman, W. Van gleder, Solid State Electron 10, 625 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid films

W. Posadowski, Thin Solid films 69, 149 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, L. C. Feldman, Thin Solid Films, 105, 187 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. C. Dautremont-Smith, AT&T Bell Laboratories; private communication.

D. R. Kaplan, P. P. Deimel, “Exact calculation of the reflection coefficient for coated optical waveguide devices,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press.

R. H. Clarke, “Theory of reflection from antireflection coatings,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. in press (Dec.1983).

O. S. Heavens, Thin Film Physics (Methuen, New York, 1970).

See, for example, L. I. Maissel, R. Glang, Handbook of Thin Film Technology (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1970).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Results of AR coating an InGaAsP laser emitting at 1.3 μm: (a) light output vs current; (b), (c) emitted spectrum for the device with one facet coated and with both facets coated, respectively. The device is driven at the original laser threshold current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of coating an AlGaAs laser emitting at 0.85 μm: (a) light output vs current; (b) emitted spectrum with one facet coated. The device is driven at the original laser threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of coating an InGaAsP laser emitting at 1.57 μm: (a) light output vs current; (b) emitted spectrum with one facet coated. The device is driven at the original laser threshold current.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Responsivity of an InGaAs PIN detector with and without AR coating.

Equations (2)

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m = P max - P min P max + P min = 0.04.
m = 2 a 1 + a 2 .

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