Abstract

The effects of nutrient deficiencies on the laser-induced fluorescence spectra of intact corn plants were studied to determine the utility of the LIF technique as a field and remote sensing tool for detection of nutrient deficiencies. A pulsed nitrogen laser emitting at 337 nm was used as the excitation source. The fluorescence maxima in corn were at 440, 690, and 740 nm. A decrease in fluorescence at 690 and 740 nm was observed for those plants deprived of phosphorus, nitrogen, and iron. The absence of nitrogen and iron also caused a small decrease in fluorescence at 440 nm. Plants deprived of calcium, sulfur, and magnesium showed no significant change in fluorescence at any of the bands. The lack of potassium increased the fluorescence at 690 and 740 nm more than threefold along with a small decrease at 440 nm.

© 1984 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Raines, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 561.
  2. B. A. Krantz, S. W. Melsted, in Hunger Signs in Crops, H. R. Sprague, Ed. (David McKay, New York, 1964), p. 25.
  3. E. I. Rabinowitch, J. Phys. 61, 870 (1957).
  4. L. N. M. Duysens, Science 120, 353 (1954).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. B. Kok, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 851.
  6. E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).
  7. J. E. McMurtrey, US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 340 (1933).
  8. J. S. Brown, M. R. Michel-Wolwertz, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 155, 288 (1968).
  9. M. E. Bauer, in Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 27 (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 271.
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Lehninger, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 917.
  11. R. A. Fischer, T. C. Hsiao, Plant Physiol. 43, 1953 (1968).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

1968 (2)

J. S. Brown, M. R. Michel-Wolwertz, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 155, 288 (1968).

R. A. Fischer, T. C. Hsiao, Plant Physiol. 43, 1953 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1957 (1)

E. I. Rabinowitch, J. Phys. 61, 870 (1957).

1954 (1)

L. N. M. Duysens, Science 120, 353 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1933 (1)

J. E. McMurtrey, US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 340 (1933).

Bauer, M. E.

M. E. Bauer, in Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 27 (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 271.
[CrossRef]

Brown, J. S.

J. S. Brown, M. R. Michel-Wolwertz, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 155, 288 (1968).

Chappelle, E. W.

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

Duysens, L. N. M.

L. N. M. Duysens, Science 120, 353 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fischer, R. A.

R. A. Fischer, T. C. Hsiao, Plant Physiol. 43, 1953 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsiao, T. C.

R. A. Fischer, T. C. Hsiao, Plant Physiol. 43, 1953 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kok, B.

B. Kok, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 851.

Krantz, B. A.

B. A. Krantz, S. W. Melsted, in Hunger Signs in Crops, H. R. Sprague, Ed. (David McKay, New York, 1964), p. 25.

Lehninger, A.

A. Lehninger, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 917.

McMurtrey, J. E.

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

J. E. McMurtrey, US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 340 (1933).

Melsted, S. W.

B. A. Krantz, S. W. Melsted, in Hunger Signs in Crops, H. R. Sprague, Ed. (David McKay, New York, 1964), p. 25.

Michel-Wolwertz, M. R.

J. S. Brown, M. R. Michel-Wolwertz, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 155, 288 (1968).

Newcomb, W. W.

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

Rabinowitch, E. I.

E. I. Rabinowitch, J. Phys. 61, 870 (1957).

Raines, D. W.

D. W. Raines, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 561.

Wood, F. M.

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

Appl. Opt. (1)

E. W. Chappelle, F. M. Wood, W. W. Newcomb, J. E. McMurtrey, same issue, Appl. Opt. 23, 000 (1Jan.1984).

Biochem. Biophys. Acta (1)

J. S. Brown, M. R. Michel-Wolwertz, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 155, 288 (1968).

J. Phys. (1)

E. I. Rabinowitch, J. Phys. 61, 870 (1957).

Plant Physiol. (1)

R. A. Fischer, T. C. Hsiao, Plant Physiol. 43, 1953 (1968).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

L. N. M. Duysens, Science 120, 353 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 340 (1)

J. E. McMurtrey, US Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull. 340 (1933).

Other (5)

M. E. Bauer, in Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 27 (Academic, New York, 1975), p. 271.
[CrossRef]

A. Lehninger, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 917.

B. Kok, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 851.

D. W. Raines, in Plant Biochemistry, J. Bonner, J. Varner, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1976), p. 561.

B. A. Krantz, S. W. Melsted, in Hunger Signs in Crops, H. R. Sprague, Ed. (David McKay, New York, 1964), p. 25.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LIF spectra of corn supplied with all essential nutrients.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nutrient deficiency effects upon mean fluorescence intensity at 440 nm. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Sample size of each treatment is 120.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nutrient deficiency effects upon mean fluorescence intensity at 690 nm. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Sample size of each treatment is 120.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Nutrient deficiency effects upon mean fluorescence intensity at 740 nm. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Sample size of each treatment is 120.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Nutrient deficiency effects upon the mean ratio of the intensity of fluorescence at 690 nm to that at 440 nm. Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different at the 5% level of probability according to Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Sample size of each treatment is 120.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Correlation Between Fluorescent Bands and Band Ratios

Tables Icon

Table II Corn Leaf Percent Reflectance at 660 nm

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