Abstract

An imaging polarimeter has been built to study the polarization of solar radiation (λ = 550 nm) scattered and reflected from the natural environment. The instrument generates false color images as multiparameter display of the degree of polarization, azimuth of polarization, and the radiance. These video signals can be digitized into a computer-compatible format. As an example of application, the polarization properties of light reflected from a lake and its environment are discussed here.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. L. Coffeen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1051 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Walraven, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 112, 164 (1977).
  3. H.-S. Chen, Investigations of the polarization of light reflected by natural surfaces Contr. AF 19 (628), 3850, Los Angeles, 1967.
  4. G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).
  6. G. -U. Spohr, “Messung der Polarisation von Streulicht über Wasserflächen,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1978.
  7. T. A. Prosch, “Optische Polarimetrie von Wasseroberflächen miteinem abbildenden Polarimeter,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1982.

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

R. Walraven, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 112, 164 (1977).

1971 (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Azzam, R. M. A.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Bashara, N. N.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

Chen, H.-S.

H.-S. Chen, Investigations of the polarization of light reflected by natural surfaces Contr. AF 19 (628), 3850, Los Angeles, 1967.

Coffeen, D. L.

Kattawar, G. W.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Plass, G. N.

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Prosch, T. A.

T. A. Prosch, “Optische Polarimetrie von Wasseroberflächen miteinem abbildenden Polarimeter,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1982.

Spohr, G. -U.

G. -U. Spohr, “Messung der Polarisation von Streulicht über Wasserflächen,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1978.

Walraven, R.

R. Walraven, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 112, 164 (1977).

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

G. N. Plass, G. W. Kattawar, J. Atmos. Sci. 28, 1187 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

R. Walraven, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 112, 164 (1977).

Other (4)

H.-S. Chen, Investigations of the polarization of light reflected by natural surfaces Contr. AF 19 (628), 3850, Los Angeles, 1967.

R. M. A. Azzam, N. N. Bashara, Ellipsometry and Polarized Light (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1977).

G. -U. Spohr, “Messung der Polarisation von Streulicht über Wasserflächen,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1978.

T. A. Prosch, “Optische Polarimetrie von Wasseroberflächen miteinem abbildenden Polarimeter,” Ph.D. Thesis, Köln, 1982.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Trace of the normalized color vector of the video polarimeter with polarizer filters at 0, 60, and 120° in a standard color coordinate system. Parameter is the degree of polarization; the coordinates x = 0.33 and y = 0.33 represent the color white.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1, except polarizer filter combination of 0, 45, and 90°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Block diagram of the video polarimeter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The video polarimeter. The sensors are mounted on the tripod; the 19″ housing contains the electronics.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the optics and the calibration system. Calibration is provided by scanning the diffusor screen at different illuminations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Error in the determination of the polarization azimuth as function of the degree of polarization (x-axis) and radiometric precision of the imaging tubes (parameter). The polarizer alignment is 0, 60, and 120°.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Isolines of the degree of polarization. The polarigram was taken at Oleftalsperre/Eifel.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photograph of the Olef-water reservoir, where the polarigram of Fig. 7 was taken. White bars indicate the field of view of the polarimeter.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Mean values (diamonds) and standard deviation (bars) of the degree of polarization azimuthally averaged from data of Fig. 7. Circles and lines represent computational results obtained from model calculations, taking into account the sky illumination, polarization ability of rough water surfaces, and the wind speed V; parameters relate to V = 1 m/sec resp. 7 m/sec.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S = [ I Q U V ] = I [ 1 p · cos 2 χ · cos 2 α p · cos 2 χ . sin 2 α p · sin 2 χ ] ,
M pol = 1 2 [ 1 cos 2 τ sin 2 τ 0 cos 2 τ cos 2 2 τ cos 2 τ sin 2 τ 0 sin 2 τ cos 2 τ sin 2 τ sin 2 2 τ 0 0 0 0 0 ] ,
S ˜ = M pol S ,
I ˜ 0 = 1 2 I ( 1 + p · cos 2 α ) ,
I ˜ 60 = 1 2 I ( 1 1 2 p · cos 2 α + 3 2 p · sin 2 α ) ,
I ˜ 120 = 1 2 I ( 1 1 2 p · cos 2 α 3 2 p · sin 2 α ) ·
I = 2 3 ( I ˜ 0 + I ˜ 60 + I ˜ 120 ) ,
Q = 2 3 ( 2 I ˜ 0 I ˜ 60 I ˜ 120 ) ,
U = 2 3 ( I ˜ 120 I ˜ 60 ) .
p = Q 2 + U 2 I
α = 1 2 arctan ( U Q ) ·
C = X e x + Y e y + Z e z
[ X Y Z ] = [ 2.769 1.752 1.120 1.000 4.591 0.060 0 0.057 5.594 ] · [ U 1 U 2 U 3 ] .

Metrics