Abstract

This paper presents a brief survey of the data available on solar constant and extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance. The spectral distribution of solar radiation at ground surface, computed from extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance for several air mass values and for four levels of atmospheric pollution, is also presented. The total irradiance at ground level is obtained by integration of the area under the spectral irradiance curves. It is significant that, as air mass increases or as turbidity increases, the amount of energy in the infrared relative to the total increases and that the energy in the UV and visible decreases.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. P. Thekaekara, A. J. Drummond, Nature London Phys. Sci. 6, 229 (1971).
  4. M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 14, 109 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. , “Solar Electromagnetic Radiation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 8005 (1971).
  6. , “Standard Specification for Solar Constant and Air Mass Zero Solar Spectral Irradiance ASTM Standard,” E 490-73a, 1974, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 41 (ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa., 1974).
  7. M. P. Thekaekara, Appl. Opt. 15, 915 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. Frohlich, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977).
  9. R. C. Willson, Sol. Phys. 74, 217 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. W. Forgan, Appl. Opt. 16, 1628 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. C. H. Duncan, R. G. Harrison, J. R. Hickey, J. M. Kendall, M. P. Thekaekara, R. C. Willson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2690 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. C. H. Duncan, “Variations of Solar Constant,” NASAConf.Publ.2191 (1981), p. 45.
  14. J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Frohlich, R. W. Brusa, Sol. Phys. 74, 209 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. R. Hickey, in Proceedings, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Davis, Calif. (1978), p. 91.
  19. J. R. Hickey, F. J. Griffin, “Space Simulation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 379 (1975).
  20. The Nimbus 7 Users’ Guide, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (Aug.1978).
  21. R. E. Predmore, H. Jacobowitz, J. R. Hickey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Technical Symposium, 338, in press (1982).
  22. A. T. Mecherikunnel, Minutes of the Ninth Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Science Team Meeting, Paris, France, Sept. (1982), p. R-1.
  23. A. K. Pierce, R. G. Allen, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977), p. 169.
  24. J. C. Arvesen, R. N. Griffin, B. D. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 8, 2215 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 119, 312 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 18, 309 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. P. Thomas (Mecherikunnel) and M. P. Thekaekara, in Sharing the Sun-Solar Technology in the Seventies, Winnipeg, Canada (American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Fla.1, 338, 1976).
  30. L. Elterman, AFCRL 68-0153, Office of Air Force Research, U.S. Air Force (1968).
  31. A. K. Ångström, Tellus 13, 214 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  32. D. M. Gates, W. J. Harrop, Appl. Opt. 2, 887 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  33. R. M. Goody, The Physics of the Atmosphere (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1958).
  34. W. M. Elasasser, Harvard Meteorological Studies No. 6 (1942).
  35. P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, Appl. Opt. 17, 2114 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. G. W. Sadler, Sol. Energy 21, 339 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  37. H. A. McCartney, M. H. Unsworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 699 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  38. T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).
  39. A. T. Mecherikunnel, J. C. Richmond, NASA Tech. Memo. 82021 (1980).
  40. R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, A. W. Kliman, H. G. Eldering, Appl. Opt. 21, 1430 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. R. Matson, R. Bird, K. Emery, SERI/TR-612-964, Sept. (1981).
  42. J. V. Dave, P. Halpern, N. Braslau, Report G320-3332, IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Calif. 94304 (1975).
  43. D. M. Gates, Science 151, 1331 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  44. P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Bird, R. L. Hulstrom, A. W. Kliman, H. G. Eldering, Appl. Opt. 21, 1430 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (4)

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Frohlich, R. W. Brusa, Sol. Phys. 74, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Willson, Sol. Phys. 74, 217 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (3)

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, Appl. Opt. 17, 2114 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Sadler, Sol. Energy 21, 339 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. A. McCartney, M. H. Unsworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

1976 (2)

1973 (1)

M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 14, 109 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

M. P. Thekaekara, A. J. Drummond, Nature London Phys. Sci. 6, 229 (1971).

1970 (1)

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

1966 (1)

D. M. Gates, Science 151, 1331 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

1961 (1)

A. K. Ångström, Tellus 13, 214 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1954 (2)

A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 119, 312 (1954).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

1940 (1)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Allen, R. G.

A. K. Pierce, R. G. Allen, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977), p. 169.

Alton, B. M.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ångström, A. K.

A. K. Ångström, Tellus 13, 214 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Arvesen, J. C.

Bilton, T.

T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).

Bird, R.

R. Matson, R. Bird, K. Emery, SERI/TR-612-964, Sept. (1981).

Bird, R. E.

Braslau, N.

J. V. Dave, P. Halpern, N. Braslau, Report G320-3332, IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Calif. 94304 (1975).

Brusa, R. W.

C. Frohlich, R. W. Brusa, Sol. Phys. 74, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, G. A.

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dave, J. V.

J. V. Dave, P. Halpern, N. Braslau, Report G320-3332, IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Calif. 94304 (1975).

Drummond, A. J.

M. P. Thekaekara, A. J. Drummond, Nature London Phys. Sci. 6, 229 (1971).

Duncan, C. H.

R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Duncan, R. G. Harrison, J. R. Hickey, J. M. Kendall, M. P. Thekaekara, R. C. Willson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2690 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Duncan, “Variations of Solar Constant,” NASAConf.Publ.2191 (1981), p. 45.

Elasasser, W. M.

W. M. Elasasser, Harvard Meteorological Studies No. 6 (1942).

Eldering, H. G.

Elterman, L.

L. Elterman, AFCRL 68-0153, Office of Air Force Research, U.S. Air Force (1968).

Emery, K.

R. Matson, R. Bird, K. Emery, SERI/TR-612-964, Sept. (1981).

Flowers, E. C.

T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).

Forgan, B. W.

Frohlich, C.

C. Frohlich, R. W. Brusa, Sol. Phys. 74, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Frohlich, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977).

Gates, D. M.

Geist, J.

R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goody, R. M.

R. M. Goody, The Physics of the Atmosphere (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1958).

Griffin, F. J.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, F. J. Griffin, “Space Simulation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 379 (1975).

Griffin, R. N.

Gulkis, S.

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpern, P.

J. V. Dave, P. Halpern, N. Braslau, Report G320-3332, IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Calif. 94304 (1975).

Harrison, R. G.

Harrop, W. J.

Hickey, J. R.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Duncan, R. G. Harrison, J. R. Hickey, J. M. Kendall, M. P. Thekaekara, R. C. Willson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2690 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Predmore, H. Jacobowitz, J. R. Hickey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Technical Symposium, 338, in press (1982).

J. R. Hickey, F. J. Griffin, “Space Simulation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 379 (1975).

J. R. Hickey, in Proceedings, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Davis, Calif. (1978), p. 91.

House, F.

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hudson, H. S.

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulstrom, R. L.

Ireland, P. J.

P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jacobowitz, H.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Predmore, H. Jacobowitz, J. R. Hickey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Technical Symposium, 338, in press (1982).

Janssen, M.

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, F. S.

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Kazmerski, L. L.

P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kendall, J. M.

Kliman, A. W.

Koepke, P.

Kurfis, K. R.

T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).

Labs, D.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Maschhoff, R. H.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matson, R.

R. Matson, R. Bird, K. Emery, SERI/TR-612-964, Sept. (1981).

McCartney, H. A.

H. A. McCartney, M. H. Unsworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, R. A.

T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).

Mecherikunnel, A. T.

A. T. Mecherikunnel, Minutes of the Ninth Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Science Team Meeting, Paris, France, Sept. (1982), p. R-1.

A. T. Mecherikunnel, J. C. Richmond, NASA Tech. Memo. 82021 (1980).

Moon, P.

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[CrossRef]

Neckel, H.

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, B. D.

Pellegrino, P.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierce, A. K.

A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 119, 312 (1954).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Pierce, R. G. Allen, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977), p. 169.

Predmore, R. E.

R. E. Predmore, H. Jacobowitz, J. R. Hickey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Technical Symposium, 338, in press (1982).

Quenzel, H.

Richmond, J. C.

A. T. Mecherikunnel, J. C. Richmond, NASA Tech. Memo. 82021 (1980).

Sadler, G. W.

G. W. Sadler, Sol. Energy 21, 339 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. A.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thekaekara, M. P.

C. H. Duncan, R. G. Harrison, J. R. Hickey, J. M. Kendall, M. P. Thekaekara, R. C. Willson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2690 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Thekaekara, Appl. Opt. 15, 915 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 18, 309 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 14, 109 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Thekaekara, A. J. Drummond, Nature London Phys. Sci. 6, 229 (1971).

A. P. Thomas (Mecherikunnel) and M. P. Thekaekara, in Sharing the Sun-Solar Technology in the Seventies, Winnipeg, Canada (American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Fla.1, 338, 1976).

Thomas, A. P.

A. P. Thomas (Mecherikunnel) and M. P. Thekaekara, in Sharing the Sun-Solar Technology in the Seventies, Winnipeg, Canada (American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Fla.1, 338, 1976).

Unsworth, M. H.

H. A. McCartney, M. H. Unsworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Vonder Haar, T. H.

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wagner, S.

P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willson, R. C.

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Willson, Sol. Phys. 74, 217 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Duncan, R. G. Harrison, J. R. Hickey, J. M. Kendall, M. P. Thekaekara, R. C. Willson, Appl. Opt. 16, 2690 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Astrophys. J. (1)

A. K. Pierce, Astrophys. J. 119, 312 (1954).
[CrossRef]

J. Franklin Inst. (1)

P. Moon, J. Franklin Inst. 230, 583 (1940).
[CrossRef]

J. Meteorol. (1)

F. S. Johnson, J. Meteorol. 11, 431 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Nature London Phys. Sci. (1)

M. P. Thekaekara, A. J. Drummond, Nature London Phys. Sci. 6, 229 (1971).

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

H. A. McCartney, M. H. Unsworth, Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104, 699 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Science (5)

D. M. Gates, Science 151, 1331 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Ireland, S. Wagner, L. L. Kazmerski, Science 204, 611 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Willson, C. H. Duncan, J. Geist, Science 207, 177 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Hickey, L. L. Stowe, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, F. House, T. H. Vonder Haar, Science 208, 281 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Willson, S. Gulkis, M. Janssen, H. S. Hudson, G. A. Chapman, Science 211, 700 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy (4)

J. R. Hickey, B. M. Alton, F. J. Griffin, H. Jacobowitz, P. Pellegrino, R. H. Maschhoff, E. A. Smith, T. H. Vonder Haar, Sol. Energy 29, 125 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 14, 109 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Thekaekara, Sol. Energy 18, 309 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Sadler, Sol. Energy 21, 339 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Phys. (4)

H. Neckel, D. Labs, Sol. Phys. 74, 231 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Willson, Sol. Phys. 74, 217 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Sol. Phys. 15, 79 (1970).
[CrossRef]

C. Frohlich, R. W. Brusa, Sol. Phys. 74, 209 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tellus (1)

A. K. Ångström, Tellus 13, 214 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Other (18)

J. R. Hickey, in Proceedings, Third Conference on Atmospheric Radiation, Davis, Calif. (1978), p. 91.

J. R. Hickey, F. J. Griffin, “Space Simulation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 379 (1975).

The Nimbus 7 Users’ Guide, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. (Aug.1978).

R. E. Predmore, H. Jacobowitz, J. R. Hickey, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. Technical Symposium, 338, in press (1982).

A. T. Mecherikunnel, Minutes of the Ninth Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Science Team Meeting, Paris, France, Sept. (1982), p. R-1.

A. K. Pierce, R. G. Allen, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977), p. 169.

C. H. Duncan, “Variations of Solar Constant,” NASAConf.Publ.2191 (1981), p. 45.

, “Solar Electromagnetic Radiation,” NASA Spec. Publ. 8005 (1971).

, “Standard Specification for Solar Constant and Air Mass Zero Solar Spectral Irradiance ASTM Standard,” E 490-73a, 1974, Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Part 41 (ASTM, Philadelphia, Pa., 1974).

C. Frohlich, in Solar Output and Its Variation, O. R. White, Ed. (Colorado Associated U.P., Boulder, 1977).

A. P. Thomas (Mecherikunnel) and M. P. Thekaekara, in Sharing the Sun-Solar Technology in the Seventies, Winnipeg, Canada (American Section of the International Solar Energy Society, Fla.1, 338, 1976).

L. Elterman, AFCRL 68-0153, Office of Air Force Research, U.S. Air Force (1968).

T. Bilton, E. C. Flowers, R. A. McCormick, K. R. Kurfis, NSF-RA-N-74-062, C. Turner, Ed. (NOAA, ERL, Silver Spring, Md.1974).

A. T. Mecherikunnel, J. C. Richmond, NASA Tech. Memo. 82021 (1980).

R. Matson, R. Bird, K. Emery, SERI/TR-612-964, Sept. (1981).

J. V. Dave, P. Halpern, N. Braslau, Report G320-3332, IBM Palo Alto Scientific Center, Calif. 94304 (1975).

R. M. Goody, The Physics of the Atmosphere (Cambridge U.P., New York, 1958).

W. M. Elasasser, Harvard Meteorological Studies No. 6 (1942).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Comparison of the NASA/ASTM and Neckel and Labs data for air mass zero solar spectral irradiance.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral distribution curves related to solar irradiance.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Solar spectral irradiance for different air mass values assuming U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 20 mm of precipitable water vapor, 3.4 mm of ozone, very clear atmosphere (α = 1.3; β = 0.02).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solar spectral irradiance for different air mass values assuming U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 20 mm of precipitable water vapor, 3.4 mm of ozone, clear atmosphere (α = 1.3; β = 0.04).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Solar spectral irradiance for different air mass values assuming U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 20 mm of precipitable water vapor, 3.4 mm of ozone, turbid atmosphere (α = 0.66; β = 0.085).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Solar spectral irradiance for different air mass values assuming U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 20 mm of precipitable water vapor, 3.4 mm of ozone, very turbid atmosphere (α = 0.66; β = 0.17).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Air mass 1.5 solar spectrum for four levels of atmospheric turbidity.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Average Value of Solar Constant Measured from Rocket Flights, Nimbus-7 ERB and the SMM ACRIM Experiments

Tables Icon

Table II Direct Solar Irradiance Eλ in W · m−2 Received on the Ground at Sea Level for the 0.3–4.045-μm Spectral Region as a Function of Air Mass and α,β Ångström Turbidity Parameters; U.S. Standard Atmosphere, 20-mm Precipitable Water Vapor, and 3.4-mm Ozone

Equations (5)

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E λ = E λ 0 exp ( c 1 + c 2 + c 3 ) m ,
m = sec z = ( sin θ sin δ + cos θ cos δ cos h ) 1 ,
c 2 = β λ α ,
E λ = E λ 0 exp [ ( c 1 + c 2 + c 3 ) m ] T λ i ,
T λ 1 = exp [ c 4 ( W m ) 1 / 2 ; T λ 2 = exp ( c 5 W m ) ; T λ 3 = 1 c 6 m 1 / 2 ,

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