Abstract

The Doppler imaging system is a Fabry-Perot spectrometer adapted to use a spatially sensitive photon detector to provide each of several instrument stations with a full 2-D imaging capability. Line-of-sight winds are determined from the Doppler shifts for each spatially defined pixel. Full vector wind fields may be obtained using three instrument stations and, at the cost of increased data processing and a priori information requirements, from two or even one instrument station. The proposal outlined here is for a bistatic system with ground-based instruments located at stations separated by some 200 km, each using wide-angle fore-optics (120°) to observe upper atmospheric emissions in the vicinity of the auroral oval. Such a system should be capable of measuring winds, using, for example, the OI 630-nm emission, on a 2-D spatial grid, over a region up to ~800-km diam, with 50-km square pixels, and yield wind measurements with accuracies ±20 m/sec in integration times of ~10 min.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).
  2. P. Jacquinot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. 19, 223 (1958).
  4. G. J. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 5, 1745 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. G. Hirschberg, P. Platz, Appl. Opt. 4, 1375 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), p. 175.
  7. H. Dupoisot, R. Prat, S. Slansky, Appl. Opt. 17, 3930 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Dupoisot, R. Prat, Appl. Opt. 18, 85 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space Sci. Instrum 5, 395 (1981).
  12. G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 507 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. Hernandez, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.
  19. D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).
  20. D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 1136 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Taylor, P. D. Atherton, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 191, 675 (1980).
  24. T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2545 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1982 (8)

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 507 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 1136 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (5)

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space Sci. Instrum 5, 395 (1981).

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

K. Taylor, P. D. Atherton, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 191, 675 (1980).

T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2545 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1978 (1)

1966 (1)

1965 (1)

1958 (1)

P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. 19, 223 (1958).

1954 (1)

1948 (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Atherton, P. D.

K. Taylor, P. D. Atherton, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 191, 675 (1980).

Barlow, F. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Burnside, R. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Charleton, P.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

Dines, T.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.

Dufour, C.

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Dupoisot, H.

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2545 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Greenaway, A. H.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hays, P. B.

Hernandez, G.

Hernandez, G. J.

Herrero, F. A.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hirschberg, J. G.

Jacquinot, P.

P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. 19, 223 (1958).

P. Jacquinot, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 761 (1954).
[CrossRef]

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space Sci. Instrum 5, 395 (1981).

Killeen, T. L.

Lyons, A.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.

Meaburn, J.

J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), p. 175.

Meriwether, J. W.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mills, O. A.

Platz, P.

Prat, R.

Rees, D.

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2545 (1980).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Scott, A. F. D.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Slansky, S.

Smith, J. L.

Smith, K.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

Taylor, K.

K. Taylor, P. D. Atherton, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 191, 675 (1980).

Towlson, W.

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. C. G.

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (9)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

G. Hernandez, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 555 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 2545 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. (1)

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, P. Charleton, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, I. McWhirter, K. Smith, J. Geophys. 50, 202 (1982).

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

R. G. Burnside, F. A. Herrero, J. W. Meriwether, J. C. G. Walker, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 5532 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Phys. (1)

P. Jacquinot, J. Phys. 19, 223 (1958).

J. Phys. E (4)

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, J. Phys. E 14, 229 (1981).
[CrossRef]

I. McWhirter, D. Rees, A. H. Greenaway, J. Phys. E 15, 145 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, P. A. Rounce, I. McWhirter, A. F. D. Scott, A. H. Greenaway, W. Towlson, J. Phys. E 15, 191 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dines, J. Phys. E 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Rech. CNRS (1)

P. Jacquinot, C. Dufour, J. Rech. CNRS 6, 91 (1948).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

K. Taylor, P. D. Atherton, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 191, 675 (1980).

Space Sci. Instrum (1)

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space Sci. Instrum 5, 395 (1981).

Other (2)

J. Meaburn, Detection and Spectrometry of Faint Light (D. Reidel, Dordrecht, 1976), p. 175.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, A. Lyons, T. Dines, “A Stable, Rugged Capacitance-Stabilized Piezoelectric Scanned Fabry-Perot Etalon, to be published.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bistatic configuration of the Doppler imaging system. To avoid confusion the angles θ2 and ϕ2 are shown inset.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Doppler imaging system (schematic, one station).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

TESS Doppler imaging system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Doppler Imaging System Specifications

Equations (12)

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I ( λ , θ , ϕ ) = 0 d l e ( l ) s { l , λ [ 1 + υ ( l ) / c ] } ,
I ( λ , θ , ϕ ) = 0 d l e ( l ) s ( l , λ ) + λ c d S d λ | λ 0 d l e ( l ) υ ( l ) + ,
υ = ( V m cos θ + V z sin θ ) sin ϕ + V υ cos ϕ .
υ j = ( V m cos θ j + V z sin θ j ) sin ϕ j + V υ cos ϕ j ,
V m ( x , y ) = k , l a k l x k y l , V z ( x , y ) = k , l b k l x k y l , V υ ( x , y ) = k , l c k l x k y l ,
K = j m , n ( υ υ ˜ m n j m n j ) 2 + ( · υ ) ,
s { l , λ [ 1 + υ ( l ) c ] } = s { l , λ [ 1 + υ ( l 0 ) c ] } + ( l l 0 ) d s ( λ ) d l | l 0 + ,
d s ( λ ) d l | l 0 = s ( λ ) T d T d l | l 0 + s ( λ ) P d P d l | l 0 + s ( λ ) υ d υ d l | l 0 ·
μ m = d λ ( λ λ 0 ) m I ( λ , θ , ϕ ) .
μ m = d λ ( λ λ 0 ) m 0 d l e ( l ) s { l , λ [ 1 + υ ( l 0 ) c ] } + d T d l | l 0 d λ ( λ λ 0 ) m s ( λ ) T d l e ( l ) ( l l 0 ) + d P d l | l 0 d λ ( λ λ 0 ) m s ( λ ) P 0 d l e ( l ) ( l l 0 ) + d υ d l | l 0 d λ ( λ λ 0 ) m s ( λ ) υ d l e ( l ) ( l l 0 ) .
λ 0 = λ ¯ [ 1 + υ ( l 0 ) c ] ·
μ m d υ d l | l 0 d λ s ( λ ) υ ( λ λ 0 ) m 0 d l e ( l ) ( l l 0 ) ; V m odd .

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