Abstract

Commercial flexible image bundles (boroscopes, endoscopes, etc.) are made up of tens of thousands of coherently arrayed multimode optical fibers whose modal propagation characteristics are unavoidably affected by bending losses. Consequently, light wave fronts transmitted through such bundles are subject to significant changes whenever the bundle is flexed anywhere along its length. For this reason images transmitted through such multimode image bundles cannot normally be used to generate holograms unless the bundle is rigidly fixed at every point. This requirement represents a substantial limitation on the use of fiber optics to generate and record holograms of remote subjects. However, this study demonstrates an original technique using ultralow frequency in situ holograms that can be transmitted through a multimode image bundle and recorded remotely even while the bundle is being moved.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of the Radiation Characteristics of Optical Fibers for Hologram Reconstruction,” Report of Fukusha-Kogaku Kenkyukai (in Japanese) (1974); T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “The Far Field Patterns of the Light Emitted from a Fiber and Their Application to Holography,” in Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Institute of Electronic and Communication Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) (1975), paper S15-2, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Trans. IECE Jpn. E60, No. 10, 533 (1977).
  2. A. M. P. P. Leite, Opt. Commun. 28, No. 3, 303 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. N. Rosen, Opt. Laser Technol. 7, No. 3, 127 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. A. Gilbert, J. W. Herrick, Exp. Mech. 21, No. 8, (1981).
  5. J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).
  6. T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).
  7. J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 21, 3520 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. E. Ennos, in Speckle Interferometry, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1975).

1982 (2)

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 21, 3520 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

J. A. Gilbert, J. W. Herrick, Exp. Mech. 21, No. 8, (1981).

1979 (1)

A. M. P. P. Leite, Opt. Commun. 28, No. 3, 303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. N. Rosen, Opt. Laser Technol. 7, No. 3, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bennewitz, J. H.

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boehnlein, A. J.

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).

Dudderar, T. D.

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 21, 3520 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).

Ennos, A. E.

A. E. Ennos, in Speckle Interferometry, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1975).

Gilbert, J. A.

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, Appl. Opt. 21, 3520 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Gilbert, J. W. Herrick, Exp. Mech. 21, No. 8, (1981).

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).

Herrick, J. W.

J. A. Gilbert, J. W. Herrick, Exp. Mech. 21, No. 8, (1981).

Koyama, J.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of the Radiation Characteristics of Optical Fibers for Hologram Reconstruction,” Report of Fukusha-Kogaku Kenkyukai (in Japanese) (1974); T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “The Far Field Patterns of the Light Emitted from a Fiber and Their Application to Holography,” in Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Institute of Electronic and Communication Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) (1975), paper S15-2, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Trans. IECE Jpn. E60, No. 10, 533 (1977).

Leite, A. M. P. P.

A. M. P. P. Leite, Opt. Commun. 28, No. 3, 303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nishihara, H.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of the Radiation Characteristics of Optical Fibers for Hologram Reconstruction,” Report of Fukusha-Kogaku Kenkyukai (in Japanese) (1974); T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “The Far Field Patterns of the Light Emitted from a Fiber and Their Application to Holography,” in Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Institute of Electronic and Communication Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) (1975), paper S15-2, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Trans. IECE Jpn. E60, No. 10, 533 (1977).

Rosen, A. N.

A. N. Rosen, Opt. Laser Technol. 7, No. 3, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, M. E.

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).

Suhara, T.

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of the Radiation Characteristics of Optical Fibers for Hologram Reconstruction,” Report of Fukusha-Kogaku Kenkyukai (in Japanese) (1974); T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “The Far Field Patterns of the Light Emitted from a Fiber and Their Application to Holography,” in Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Institute of Electronic and Communication Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) (1975), paper S15-2, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Trans. IECE Jpn. E60, No. 10, 533 (1977).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Exp. Mech. (1)

J. A. Gilbert, J. W. Herrick, Exp. Mech. 21, No. 8, (1981).

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. M. P. P. Leite, Opt. Commun. 28, No. 3, 303 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

A. N. Rosen, Opt. Laser Technol. 7, No. 3, 127 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, J. H. Bennewitz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Remote Speckle Metrology Using Incoherent Light,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 3, 183 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. E. Ennos, in Speckle Interferometry, J. C. Dainty, Ed. (Springer, New York, 1975).

T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “Analysis of the Radiation Characteristics of Optical Fibers for Hologram Reconstruction,” Report of Fukusha-Kogaku Kenkyukai (in Japanese) (1974); T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, “The Far Field Patterns of the Light Emitted from a Fiber and Their Application to Holography,” in Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Institute of Electronic and Communication Engineers of Japan (in Japanese) (1975), paper S15-2, T. Suhara, H. Nishihara, J. Koyama, Trans. IECE Jpn. E60, No. 10, 533 (1977).

J. A. Gilbert, T. D. Dudderar, M. E. Schultz, A. J. Boehnlein, “The Monomode Fiber—A New Tool for Holographic Interferometry,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn, 1982).

T. D. Dudderar, J. A. Gilbert, A. J. Boehnlein, M. E. Schultz, “The Application of Fiber Optics to Speckle Metrology,” in Proceedings, Joint SESA/JSME International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (SESA, Brookfield, Conn., 1982).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic arrangement of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from remote holograms recorded through a 10-mm diam MMB, processed, and reconstructed by a 10-mm diam reference beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enlarged photographs of portions of the holograms recorded through a 10-mm diam MMB showing the diffraction patterns associated with the images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from direct holograms recorded in situ (no MMB), processed, and reconstructed by a 10-mm diam reference beam.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from direct holograms recorded in situ (no MMB), processed, and reconstructed by a 16-mm diam reference beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from remote holograms recorded through a 10-mm diam MMB, processed, and reconstructed by a 4-mm diam reference beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from remote holograms recorded through a 10-mm diameter MMB, processed, and reconstructed by a 2-mm diam reference beam.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images (a) H and (b) REMOTE HOLO from direct holograms recorded in situ (no MMB), processed, and reconstructed by a 4-mm diam reference beam.

Equations (2)

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λ = 2 d sin θ .
σ 1.22 λ ( L / D ) ,

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