Abstract

Time-averaged spectral line shapes of the a hyperfine component of the Cul 5782-Å line (2D3/22P1/2) from a pulsed high-gain cuprous chloride (CuCl) laser are measured with a high-resolution (±1 mK) Fabry-Perot interferometer. Four operational modes are studied: (1) high-power oscillator; (2) low-power oscillator; (3) oscillator–amplifier combination; and (4) spontaneous-emission source. Two models are used for the oscillator and amplifier: a quasi-steady-state approximation and a gain-switched pulsed model, respectively. The corresponding computed interferograms are fitted to the experimental ones by varying the unsaturated gain g0, saturation and spontaneous-emission parameters, and the temperature and homogeneous FWHM. Use of a common discharge tube enables us to achieve a one–one correspondence between experimental data and laser parameters, whose resulting values agree with those obtained by other methods. Typically, the total average spectral output of the high-power oscillator is ~6.7 W and its g0 value is 0.15 cm−1.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. F. Hotz, Appl. Opt. 4, 527 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. L. Chimenti, The Copper Vapor Laser, Ph.D. Thesis, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y. (1972).
  5. I. Smilanski, L. A. Levin, G. Erez, Opt. Lett. 5, 93 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. D. Litke, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 17, 411 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. M. Nerheim et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 686 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. M. Nerheim, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1186 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. M. Nerheim, C. J. Chen, Visible Wavelength Laser Development Final Report, Phase I (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for DARPA 2756, 1975).
  11. K. G. Harstad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 550 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. M. Kull, in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, V. S. Corcoran, Ed. (STS, Mclean, Va., 1980), p. 148.
  13. W. C. Kreye, F. L. Roesler, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1100 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. I. Gordon et al., in Proceedings, Symposium on Optical Lasers (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1963), pp. 309–319.
  15. L. W. Casperson, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 80 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. W. Casperson, Appl. Opt. 14, 299 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5194 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Maitland, M. H. Dunn, Laser Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Chap. 8.
  19. M. J. Kushner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1555 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4563 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (University P., New York, 1961), pp. 94 and 95.
  22. N. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE, 52, 165 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4555 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. P. Agrawal, M. Lax, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 515 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. W. Rigrod, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  27. Yu. I. Malakhov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 125 (1978).
  28. H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).
  29. H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (Academic, New York, 1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  31. E. Sovero et al., J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4538 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  32. C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, Experimental Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 53 (1962).
  34. E. U. Condon, G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University P., Cambridge, 1964), p. 98.
  35. A. U. Hazi, in Proceedings, Thirty-Third Gaseous Electronics Conference, Norman, Okla., 1980.

1981 (2)

M. J. Kushner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Agrawal, M. Lax, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 71, 515 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

K. G. Harstad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 550 (1980).
[CrossRef]

I. Smilanski, L. A. Levin, G. Erez, Opt. Lett. 5, 93 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (2)

N. M. Nerheim et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 686 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Yu. I. Malakhov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 125 (1978).

1977 (4)

S. Trajmar et al., J. Phys. B 10, 3323 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Nerheim, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1186 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Litke, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 17, 411 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4563 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Sovero et al., J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4538 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

L. W. Casperson, Appl. Opt. 14, 299 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. W. Casperson, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 80 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1966 (3)

E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089 (1966).
[CrossRef]

W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (2)

W. W. Rigrod, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487 (1965).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Hotz, Appl. Opt. 4, 527 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

N. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE, 52, 165 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

A. Szöke, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 521 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Ballik, E. A.

E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, W. R.

E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bozman, W. R.

C. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, Experimental Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 53 (1962).

Casperson, L. W.

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4563 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, Appl. Opt. 14, 299 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 80 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. J.

N. M. Nerheim, C. J. Chen, Visible Wavelength Laser Development Final Report, Phase I (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for DARPA 2756, 1975).

Chimenti, R. J. L.

R. J. L. Chimenti, The Copper Vapor Laser, Ph.D. Thesis, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y. (1972).

Condon, E. U.

E. U. Condon, G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University P., Cambridge, 1964), p. 98.

Corliss, C.

C. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, Experimental Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 53 (1962).

Dunn, M. H.

A. Maitland, M. H. Dunn, Laser Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Chap. 8.

Erez, G.

Feldman, D. W.

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, W.

W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, E. I.

E. I. Gordon et al., in Proceedings, Symposium on Optical Lasers (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1963), pp. 309–319.

Griem, H. R.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (Academic, New York, 1974).

Harstad, K. G.

K. G. Harstad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 550 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hazi, A. U.

A. U. Hazi, in Proceedings, Thirty-Third Gaseous Electronics Conference, Norman, Okla., 1980.

Hotz, D. F.

Huhnermann, H.

W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Javan, A.

A. Szöke, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 521 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, N.

N. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE, 52, 165 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Kollath, K. J.

W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kreye, W. C.

Kull, G. M.

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. M. Kull, in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, V. S. Corcoran, Ed. (STS, Mclean, Va., 1980), p. 148.

Kushner, M. J.

M. J. Kushner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lax, M.

Levin, L. A.

Litke, J. D.

J. D. Litke, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 17, 411 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. S.

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Maitland, A.

A. Maitland, M. H. Dunn, Laser Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Chap. 8.

Malakhov, Yu. I.

Yu. I. Malakhov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 125 (1978).

Mercer, G. N.

E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, A. C. G.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (University P., New York, 1961), pp. 94 and 95.

Nerheim, N. M.

N. M. Nerheim et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 686 (1978).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Nerheim, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1186 (1977).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Nerheim, C. J. Chen, Visible Wavelength Laser Development Final Report, Phase I (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for DARPA 2756, 1975).

Pack, J. L.

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Rigrod, W. W.

W. W. Rigrod, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Roesler, F. L.

Shortley, G. H.

E. U. Condon, G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University P., Cambridge, 1964), p. 98.

Smilanski, I.

Smith, P. W.

P. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Solimene, N.

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. M. Kull, in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, V. S. Corcoran, Ed. (STS, Mclean, Va., 1980), p. 148.

Sovero, E.

E. Sovero et al., J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4538 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Szöke, A.

A. Szöke, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 521 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Trajmar, S.

S. Trajmar et al., J. Phys. B 10, 3323 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Walter, W. T.

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. M. Kull, in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, V. S. Corcoran, Ed. (STS, Mclean, Va., 1980), p. 148.

Weaver, L. A.

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

L. W. Casperson, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 80 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE, 52, 165 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Zemansky, M. W.

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (University P., New York, 1961), pp. 94 and 95.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

E. A. Ballik, W. R. Bennett, G. N. Mercer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 214 (1966).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

N. M. Nerheim et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 686 (1978).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 80 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Harstad, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-16, 550 (1980).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Kushner, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1555 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Liu, D. W. Feldman, J. L. Pack, L. A. Weaver, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 744 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (7)

E. Sovero et al., J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4538 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4563 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4555 (1976).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Rigrod, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 2487 (1965).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Casperson, J. Appl. Phys. 46, 5194 (1975).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Nerheim, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1186 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Smith, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 2089 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Phys. B (1)

S. Trajmar et al., J. Phys. B 10, 3323 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. (1)

J. D. Litke, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer. 17, 411 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

Yu. I. Malakhov, Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 44, 125 (1978).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. Szöke, A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 521 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

N. Kogelnik, A. Yariv, Proc. IEEE, 52, 165 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

W. Fischer, H. Huhnermann, K. J. Kollath, Z. Phys. 194, 417 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Other (11)

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

H. R. Griem, Spectral Line Broadening by Plasmas (Academic, New York, 1974).

A. C. G. Mitchell, M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (University P., New York, 1961), pp. 94 and 95.

C. Corliss, W. R. Bozman, Experimental Transition Probabilities for Spectral Lines of Seventy Elements, Natl. Bur. Stand. (U.S.) Monogr. 53 (1962).

E. U. Condon, G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University P., Cambridge, 1964), p. 98.

A. U. Hazi, in Proceedings, Thirty-Third Gaseous Electronics Conference, Norman, Okla., 1980.

R. J. L. Chimenti, The Copper Vapor Laser, Ph.D. Thesis, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, N.Y. (1972).

N. M. Nerheim, C. J. Chen, Visible Wavelength Laser Development Final Report, Phase I (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for DARPA 2756, 1975).

A. Maitland, M. H. Dunn, Laser Physics (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1969), Chap. 8.

E. I. Gordon et al., in Proceedings, Symposium on Optical Lasers (Polytechnic Press, Brooklyn, N.Y., 1963), pp. 309–319.

W. T. Walter, N. Solimene, G. M. Kull, in Proceedings, International Conference on Lasers, V. S. Corcoran, Ed. (STS, Mclean, Va., 1980), p. 148.

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