Abstract

The usability of spontaneous laser Raman measurements of molecular oxygen for combustion control and regulation is investigated theoretically on the basis of detection and accuracy considerations using a giant-pulsed ruby laser. The theoretical values meet very well the demand of the oxygen concentration measurements in different technical flames and show good agreement with the first experimental results obtained at room temperature.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Probes using the paramagnetism of O2 (e.g., Magnos 5T, Hartmann and Braun) or measuring the magnetic susceptibility of the gas mixture (e.g., system OA 137, Servomex).
  2. W. Pluschkell, Arch. Eisenhuettenwes. 46, 11 (1975).
  3. A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).
  5. L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).
  6. L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1533.
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. L. Flower, SAND 81-8608 (1981).
  8. A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Flower, J. A. Miller, SAND 79-8607 (1979).
  10. A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fiebig, A. Leipertz, Forschungsber. Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 2922 (1980).
  12. A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. D. Winefordner, in Trace Analysis, J. D. Winefordner, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 1.

1981 (1)

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978 (1)

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

W. Pluschkell, Arch. Eisenhuettenwes. 46, 11 (1975).

Bonczyk, P. A.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Farrow, R. L.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1533.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Fiebig, M.

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, A. Leipertz, Forschungsber. Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 2922 (1980).

Flower, W. L.

W. L. Flower, SAND 81-8608 (1981).

W. L. Flower, J. A. Miller, SAND 79-8607 (1979).

Johnston, S. C.

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Leipertz, A.

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Appl. Opt. 18, 357 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fiebig, A. Leipertz, Forschungsber. Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 2922 (1980).

Mattern, P. L.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1533.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Meyers, C. G.

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. A.

W. L. Flower, J. A. Miller, SAND 79-8607 (1979).

Pealat, M.

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Pluschkell, W.

W. Pluschkell, Arch. Eisenhuettenwes. 46, 11 (1975).

Rahn, L. A.

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1533.
[CrossRef]

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Roh, W. B.

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, P. W.

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Switzer, G. L.

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Taran, J. P.

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

Verdieck, J. F.

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Winefordner, J. D.

J. D. Winefordner, in Trace Analysis, J. D. Winefordner, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 1.

AIAA J. (1)

G. L. Switzer, C. G. Meyers, W. B. Roh, P. W. Schreiber, AIAA J. 16, 766 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Eisenhuettenwes. (1)

W. Pluschkell, Arch. Eisenhuettenwes. 46, 11 (1975).

Combust. Flame (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, Combust. Flame 39, 133 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. Leipertz, M. Fiebig, Opt. Eng. 20, 599 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, J. F. Verdieck, Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 5, 253 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Probes using the paramagnetism of O2 (e.g., Magnos 5T, Hartmann and Braun) or measuring the magnetic susceptibility of the gas mixture (e.g., system OA 137, Servomex).

J. D. Winefordner, in Trace Analysis, J. D. Winefordner, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1976), p. 1.

M. Fiebig, A. Leipertz, Forschungsber. Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen 2922 (1980).

W. L. Flower, J. A. Miller, SAND 79-8607 (1979).

J. P. Taran, M. Pealat, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

L. A. Rahn, S. C. Johnston, R. L. Farrow, P. L. Mattern, to be published in Temperature: Its Measurement and Control in Science and Industry, Vol. 5 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1982).

L. A. Rahn, P. L. Mattern, R. L. Farrow, in Proceedings, Eighteenth International Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1981), p. 1533.
[CrossRef]

W. L. Flower, SAND 81-8608 (1981).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Oxygen concentration detection limit (SNR = 1) in its dependence on laser irradiance (giant-pulsed ruby laser) for different gas temperatures and sample sizes. The indicated scattering volumes are calculated for the fixed beam diameter as given in the figure and thus for different sample lengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Oxygen concentration detection limit (SNR = 1) in its dependence on the desired sample size (spatial resolution) for a Q-switched ruby laser with an output energy of 4 J at different gas temperatures. Gas breakdown power threshold is assumed to be 1015 W m−2 for all situations. The scattering volume is now calculated for the fixed sample length l indicated and for various beam diameters, which is different from the calculations in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of the theoretical O2 concentration detection limit (1-J irradiance) at different gas temperatures and for different single pulse accuracies with the measurement demand for various technical flames.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

First experimental results at room temperature.

Equations (3)

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N i = Q i T c N L Ω l ( d σ / d Ω ) i n i ,
C O 2 = 1.368 × 10 22 N i T · { Q i T c N L ( d σ / d Ω ) O 2 Ω l [ 1 exp ( 2,239.3848 / T ] } 1 ,
E = 1 4 π d 2 W τ ,

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