Abstract

In the usual method of stereoscopic imaging by observation at two different angles the resolution obtainable is poor. By imaging in a confocal scanning optical microscope with two different angles of observation the resolution is substantially improved. The method is applicable to phase and amplitude objects.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Birchon, Optical Microscope Technique (Newnes, London, 1961).
  2. C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 166 (1980).
  4. D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).
  6. C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 201–225.

1981 (1)

1980 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 166 (1980).

1978 (1)

J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).

1977 (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Birchon, D.

D. Birchon, Optical Microscope Technique (Newnes, London, 1961).

Bouwhuis, G.

J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).

Braat, J. J. M.

J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).

Choudhury, A.

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. K.

Heemskerk, J. P. J.

J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).

Sheppard, C. J. R.

D. K. Hamilton, T. Wilson, C. J. R. Sheppard, Opt. Lett. 6, 625 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 166 (1980).

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 201–225.

Wilson, T.

Electron. Power (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, Electron. Power 166 (1980).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. P. J. Heemskerk, J. J. M. Braat, G. Bouwhuis, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68, 1407 (1978).

Opt. Acta (1)

C. J. R. Sheppard, A. Choudhury, Opt. Acta 24, 1051 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (2)

D. Birchon, Optical Microscope Technique (Newnes, London, 1961).

C. J. R. Sheppard, “Imaging Modes of Scanning Optical Microscopes,” in Scanned Image Microscopy, E. A. Ash, Ed. (Academic, London, 1980), pp. 201–225.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a reflection confocal microscope with a half-plane obstruction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

High magnification reflection stereoscopic image pair formed using a confocal microscope. The area of each photograph is 30 × 23 μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Stereoscopic image pair formed without the detector pinhole, showing much reduced resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal intensity for a perfect reflector at angle θ for various obscurations .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transfer function for weak object modulation. The even part results in amplitude imaging and the odd part in differential phase contrast.

Equations (4)

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c ( m ) = P 1 ( m ) P 2 ( m ) ,
I ( θ ) = c ( sin θ / sin α ) c * ( sin θ / sin α ) ,
c ( m ) = 0 , m > 1 = Λ ( m ) , 1 > m > / 2 = Λ ( m ) Λ ( 1 + 2 m ) , 0 < m < / 2 = Λ ( m ) Λ ( 1 ) , 0 > m > ( 1 ) = 0 , m < ( 1 ) ,
Λ ( m ) = 2 π { cos 1 | m | | m | 1 m 2 } , | m | 1

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