Abstract

A new algorithm has been developed which permits, for the first time, real-time data reduction of nadir measurements taken with a gas-filter correlation radiometer to determine tropospheric carbon-monoxide concentrations. The algorithm significantly reduces the complexity of the equations to be solved while providing accuracy comparable to line-by-line calculations. The method is based on a regression analysis technique using a truncated power series representation of the primary instrument output signals to infer directly a weighted average of trace gas concentration. The results produced by a microcomputer-based implementation of this technique are compared with those produced by the more rigorous line-by-line methods. This algorithm has been used in the reduction of MAPS Shuttle and aircraft data.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 11 (1979).
  2. T. V. Ward, H. H. Zwick, Appl. Opt. 14, 12 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. G. Reichle, Remote Measurement of Pollution from Aircraft, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.Annual Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA, 23–27 Aug., 95, 55 (1976).
  4. C. B. Ludwig, R. Bartle, M. Griggs, Study of Air Pollutant Detection by Remote Sensors, NASA CR-1380 (1969).
  5. Remote Measurement of Pollution, NASA SP-285 (1971).
  6. C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).
  7. L. L. Acton et al., AIAA J. 11, 7 (1973).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. G. Reichle, W. D. Hesketh, “A Gas Filter Correlation Instrument for Atmospheric Trace Constituent Monitoring,” in Proceedings, WMO Conference on Atmospheric Pollution Measuring Techniques, Gothenburg, Sweden, 11–15 Oct. 1976.
  9. P. G. Abel, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35 (1970).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. M. Beck, W. D. Hesketh, R. T. Sherrill, “Aircraft Instrumentation System for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, La., 6–11 Nov. 1977, p. 561.
  11. J. C. Casas, S. A. Campbell, A Modular Radiative Transfer Program for Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry, NASA CR-2895 (1977).
  12. R. A. McClatchey et al., AFCRL Atmospheric Line Parameters Compilations, AFCRL TR-73-0096 (1973).
  13. L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 15, 2 (1976).
    [Crossref]
  14. W. L. Smith, A Polynomial Representation of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Transmission, ESSA Tech. Report NESC47 (1969).
  15. G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.
  16. H. G. Reichle et al., Carbon Monoxide Measurements in the Troposphere, Science 218, 1024 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. G. Reichle et al., Carbon Monoxide Measurements in the Troposphere, Science 218, 1024 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1979 (1)

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 11 (1979).

1976 (1)

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 15, 2 (1976).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

T. V. Ward, H. H. Zwick, Appl. Opt. 14, 12 (1975).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

L. L. Acton et al., AIAA J. 11, 7 (1973).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

P. G. Abel, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35 (1970).
[Crossref]

Abel, P. G.

P. G. Abel, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35 (1970).
[Crossref]

Acton, L. L.

L. L. Acton et al., AIAA J. 11, 7 (1973).
[Crossref]

Bartle, E.

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).

Bartle, R.

C. B. Ludwig, R. Bartle, M. Griggs, Study of Air Pollutant Detection by Remote Sensors, NASA CR-1380 (1969).

Beck, S. M.

S. M. Beck, W. D. Hesketh, R. T. Sherrill, “Aircraft Instrumentation System for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, La., 6–11 Nov. 1977, p. 561.

Campbell, S. A.

J. C. Casas, S. A. Campbell, A Modular Radiative Transfer Program for Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry, NASA CR-2895 (1977).

Casas, J. C.

J. C. Casas, S. A. Campbell, A Modular Radiative Transfer Program for Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry, NASA CR-2895 (1977).

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Condon, E. P.

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Doherty, G. M.

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Fleming, H. E.

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 15, 2 (1976).
[Crossref]

Gordley, L. L.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 11 (1979).

Griggs, M.

C. B. Ludwig, R. Bartle, M. Griggs, Study of Air Pollutant Detection by Remote Sensors, NASA CR-1380 (1969).

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).

Hesketh, W. D.

S. M. Beck, W. D. Hesketh, R. T. Sherrill, “Aircraft Instrumentation System for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, La., 6–11 Nov. 1977, p. 561.

H. G. Reichle, W. D. Hesketh, “A Gas Filter Correlation Instrument for Atmospheric Trace Constituent Monitoring,” in Proceedings, WMO Conference on Atmospheric Pollution Measuring Techniques, Gothenburg, Sweden, 11–15 Oct. 1976.

Ludwig, C. B.

C. B. Ludwig, R. Bartle, M. Griggs, Study of Air Pollutant Detection by Remote Sensors, NASA CR-1380 (1969).

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).

Malkmos, W.

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).

McClatchey, R. A.

R. A. McClatchey et al., AFCRL Atmospheric Line Parameters Compilations, AFCRL TR-73-0096 (1973).

McMillin, L. M.

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 15, 2 (1976).
[Crossref]

Newell, R. E.

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Reichle, H. G.

H. G. Reichle et al., Carbon Monoxide Measurements in the Troposphere, Science 218, 1024 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

H. G. Reichle, Remote Measurement of Pollution from Aircraft, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.Annual Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA, 23–27 Aug., 95, 55 (1976).

H. G. Reichle, W. D. Hesketh, “A Gas Filter Correlation Instrument for Atmospheric Trace Constituent Monitoring,” in Proceedings, WMO Conference on Atmospheric Pollution Measuring Techniques, Gothenburg, Sweden, 11–15 Oct. 1976.

Russell, J. M.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 11 (1979).

Sherrill, R. T.

S. M. Beck, W. D. Hesketh, R. T. Sherrill, “Aircraft Instrumentation System for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, La., 6–11 Nov. 1977, p. 561.

Smith, W. L.

W. L. Smith, A Polynomial Representation of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Transmission, ESSA Tech. Report NESC47 (1969).

Wallio, H. A.

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

Ward, T. V.

T. V. Ward, H. H. Zwick, Appl. Opt. 14, 12 (1975).
[Crossref]

Zwick, H. H.

T. V. Ward, H. H. Zwick, Appl. Opt. 14, 12 (1975).
[Crossref]

AIAA J. (1)

L. L. Acton et al., AIAA J. 11, 7 (1973).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

L. M. McMillin, H. E. Fleming, Appl. Opt. 15, 2 (1976).
[Crossref]

T. V. Ward, H. H. Zwick, Appl. Opt. 14, 12 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 11 (1979).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

P. G. Abel, Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 320, 35 (1970).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

H. G. Reichle et al., Carbon Monoxide Measurements in the Troposphere, Science 218, 1024 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (10)

W. L. Smith, A Polynomial Representation of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Transmission, ESSA Tech. Report NESC47 (1969).

G. M. Doherty, J. C. Casas, E. P. Condon, R. E. Newell, H. G. Reichle, H. A. Wallio, “Analysis of Remote Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Concentrations Made During the 1979 Summer Monsoon Experiment,” submitted to J. Geophys. Res.

H. G. Reichle, W. D. Hesketh, “A Gas Filter Correlation Instrument for Atmospheric Trace Constituent Monitoring,” in Proceedings, WMO Conference on Atmospheric Pollution Measuring Techniques, Gothenburg, Sweden, 11–15 Oct. 1976.

S. M. Beck, W. D. Hesketh, R. T. Sherrill, “Aircraft Instrumentation System for the Remote Sensing of Carbon Monoxide,” in Proceedings, Fourth Joint Conference on Sensing of Environmental Pollutants, New Orleans, La., 6–11 Nov. 1977, p. 561.

J. C. Casas, S. A. Campbell, A Modular Radiative Transfer Program for Gas Filter Correlation Radiometry, NASA CR-2895 (1977).

R. A. McClatchey et al., AFCRL Atmospheric Line Parameters Compilations, AFCRL TR-73-0096 (1973).

H. G. Reichle, Remote Measurement of Pollution from Aircraft, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.Annual Technical Symposium, San Diego, CA, 23–27 Aug., 95, 55 (1976).

C. B. Ludwig, R. Bartle, M. Griggs, Study of Air Pollutant Detection by Remote Sensors, NASA CR-1380 (1969).

Remote Measurement of Pollution, NASA SP-285 (1971).

C. B. Ludwig, M. Griggs, W. Malkmos, E. Bartle, Air Pollution Measurements from Satellite, NASA CR-2324 (1973).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of current GFCR concept.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Procedure for reduction of GFCR aircraft flight data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of line-by-line calculations (solid curves) and regression calculations (symbols) for six surface temperatures at an emissivity of 0.88 and a flight altitude of 5.9 km.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of line-by-line calculations at an altitude of 12.5 km (solid curves) and the regression calculations based on altitude of 11.6 km (symbols) for four surface temperatures at an emissivity of 0.88.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of line-by-line calculations (solid curve) and regression calculations (symbols) at four surface temperatures, emissivity of 0.88, and a flight altitude of 6 km, when the regression coefficients are extended.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table I Polynomials, Estimated Coefficients, Standard Errors, t-Ratios, Adjusted Multiple Correlation Coefficient and Variance for a Flight Altitude of 5.9 km

Tables Icon

Table II Polynomials, Estimated Coefficients, Standard Errors, t-Ratios, Adjusted Multiple Correlation Coefficient, and Variance for a Flight Altitude of 11.6 km

Tables Icon

Table III α0,α1,α2,α3 (See Text) for a Flight Altitude of 11.6 km with Radiances for Two Different CO Mixing Ratios

Tables Icon

Table IV Regression Residual Standard Deviation at Each Altitude and Regression Residual Standard Deviation When Coefficients are Used at Altitudes Above and Below Their Solution Altitude

Equations (6)

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Δ N = N gas N vac = Δ ω N T ( ω ) [ τ ( ω ) gas τ vac ] d ω ,
N T ( ω ) = ( ω ) N 0 ( ω , T s ) τ ( ω , h ) + 0 h N 0 [ ω , T ( z ) ] d τ ( ω , z ) d z d z + 1 π [ 1 ( ω ) ] cos θ H s ( ω ) [ τ ( ω , h ) ] [ τ ( ω , h ) ] f ( θ ) ,
C = i , j = 0 i , j = n B i j ( N ) i ( Δ N ) j ,
C = A β .
β = ( A T A ) 1 A T C ,
Q i i = ( A T A ) i i .

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