Abstract

A simple analytic model describing the evolution of the thermal injury during and after exposure of biological tissue to pulses of intense laser radiation is presented. Estimates for the upper and lower bounds of the extent of the thermal injury associated with protein and enzyme denaturization (secondary damage) relative to the extent of burned tissue (primary damage) are presented. The energy necessary for burn threshold and the energy required to induce both types of thermal injury increase with laser pulse duration. An optimal duration of laser pulse exists at which the extent of the secondary damage relative to the primary damage is the smallest.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. Kaplan, R. Ger, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9, 1, 79 (1973).
  2. I. Kaplan, U. Sharon, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 267, 247 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. G. J. Jako, R. A. Wallace, Laser 77: Opto-Electron, 3rd conf. Proc., Munich, Germany, 1977.
  4. M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.
  7. M. Imakiire et al., in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 7-1.
  8. S. Mihashi et al., in Proceedings, Third International Congress for Laser Surgery, Graz, Sept. 1979 (Jerusalem Academic Press, Jerusalem, 1979), p. 17.
  9. A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, Am. J. Pathol. 29, 695 (1947).
  10. A. M. Stoll, M. A. Chianta, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 33, 649 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. H. Wissler, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-23, 207 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 100, 49 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 244 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Halldorsson, J. Langerholc, Appl. Opt. 17, 3948 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Langerholc, Appl. Opt. 18, 2286 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959).
  21. A. Shitzer, M. K. Kleiner, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 102, 162 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Shitzer, in Topics in Heat Transport Phenomena, C. Gutfinger, Ed. (Halsted Press, New York, 1975), p. 211.
  23. I. P. Shkarofski, RCA Rev. 36, 336 (1975).
  24. F. C. Henriques, Arch. Pathol. 43, 489 (1947).
  25. J. C. Chato, in Advanced Heat Transfer, B. T. Chao, Ed. (U. Illinois Press, Chicago, 1969), p. 395.

1980

L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shitzer, M. K. Kleiner, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 102, 162 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. Langerholc, Appl. Opt. 18, 2286 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 100, 49 (1978).
[CrossRef]

T. Halldorsson, J. Langerholc, Appl. Opt. 17, 3948 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

E. H. Wissler, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-23, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. Kaplan, U. Sharon, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 267, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1975

I. P. Shkarofski, RCA Rev. 36, 336 (1975).

1974

F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1973

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kaplan, R. Ger, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9, 1, 79 (1973).

1971

A. M. Stoll, M. A. Chianta, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 33, 649 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1970

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1947

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, Am. J. Pathol. 29, 695 (1947).

F. C. Henriques, Arch. Pathol. 43, 489 (1947).

Abramson, A. L.

L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayly, J. G.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, H. S.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959).

Chato, J. C.

J. C. Chato, in Advanced Heat Transfer, B. T. Chao, Ed. (U. Illinois Press, Chicago, 1969), p. 395.

Chianta, M. A.

A. M. Stoll, M. A. Chianta, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 33, 649 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Fukumoto, I.

I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.

Ger, R.

I. Kaplan, R. Ger, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9, 1, 79 (1973).

Grimes, G. W.

L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halldorsson, T.

Henderson, M. R.

F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henriques, F. C.

F. C. Henriques, Arch. Pathol. 43, 489 (1947).

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, Am. J. Pathol. 29, 695 (1947).

Imakiire, M.

M. Imakiire et al., in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 7-1.

Incropera, F. P.

F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishimori, A.

I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.

Jaeger, J. C.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959).

Jako, G. J.

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Jako, R. A. Wallace, Laser 77: Opto-Electron, 3rd conf. Proc., Munich, Germany, 1977.

Kaplan, I.

I. Kaplan, U. Sharon, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 267, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kaplan, R. Ger, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9, 1, 79 (1973).

Kartha, V. B.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, M. K.

A. Shitzer, M. K. Kleiner, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 102, 162 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Langerholc, J.

Link, W. J.

F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mainster, M. A.

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Mihashi, S.

S. Mihashi et al., in Proceedings, Third International Congress for Laser Surgery, Graz, Sept. 1979 (Jerusalem Academic Press, Jerusalem, 1979), p. 17.

Moritz, A. R.

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, Am. J. Pathol. 29, 695 (1947).

Polanyi, T.

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Priebe, L. A.

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 100, 49 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Saito, M.

I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.

Sharon, U.

I. Kaplan, U. Sharon, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 267, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shitzer, A.

A. Shitzer, M. K. Kleiner, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 102, 162 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Shitzer, in Topics in Heat Transport Phenomena, C. Gutfinger, Ed. (Halsted Press, New York, 1975), p. 211.

Shkarofski, I. P.

I. P. Shkarofski, RCA Rev. 36, 336 (1975).

Stern, L. S.

L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stevens, W. H.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Stoll, A. M.

A. M. Stoll, M. A. Chianta, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 33, 649 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Strong, M. S.

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tips, J. H.

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, R. A.

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Jako, R. A. Wallace, Laser 77: Opto-Electron, 3rd conf. Proc., Munich, Germany, 1977.

Welch, A. J.

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 100, 49 (1978).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, P. W.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wissler, E. H.

E. H. Wissler, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-23, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.

Am. J. Pathol.

A. R. Moritz, F. C. Henriques, Am. J. Pathol. 29, 695 (1947).

Am. J. Surg.

M. S. Strong, G. J. Jako, T. Polanyi, R. A. Wallace, Am. J. Surg. 126, 529 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.

I. Kaplan, U. Sharon, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 267, 247 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Pathol.

F. C. Henriques, Arch. Pathol. 43, 489 (1947).

Bull. Math. Biophys.

M. A. Mainster, T. J. White, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 303 (1970).
[CrossRef]

T. J. White, M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips, P. W. Wilson, Bull. Math. Biophys. 32, 315 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng.

E. H. Wissler, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-23, 207 (1976).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. BME-26, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys.

J. G. Bayly, V. B. Kartha, W. H. Stevens, Infrared Phys. 3, 211 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Isr. J. Med. Sci.

I. Kaplan, R. Ger, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 9, 1, 79 (1973).

Laryngoscope

L. S. Stern, A. L. Abramson, G. W. Grimes, Laryngoscope 90, 792 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Med. Biol. Eng.

F. P. Incropera, W. J. Link, M. R. Henderson, Med. Biol. Eng. p. 199 (Mar.1974).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

RCA Rev.

I. P. Shkarofski, RCA Rev. 36, 336 (1975).

Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng.

A. Shitzer, M. K. Kleiner, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 102, 162 (1980).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Priebe, A. J. Welch, Trans. ASME J. Biomech. Eng. 100, 49 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II

A. M. Stoll, M. A. Chianta, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 33, 649 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. J. Jako, R. A. Wallace, Laser 77: Opto-Electron, 3rd conf. Proc., Munich, Germany, 1977.

I. Fukumoto, T. Yamamoto, A. Ishimori, M. Saito, in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 3-8.

M. Imakiire et al., in Proceedings, Fourth Congress of the International Society for Laser Surgery, Tokyo, 3–8 Nov. 1981, K. Atsumi, N. Nimsakul, Eds. (Japan Society for Laser Medicine, Tokyo, 1981), paper 7-1.

S. Mihashi et al., in Proceedings, Third International Congress for Laser Surgery, Graz, Sept. 1979 (Jerusalem Academic Press, Jerusalem, 1979), p. 17.

H. S. Carslaw, J. C. Jaeger, Conduction of Heat in Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1959).

A. Shitzer, in Topics in Heat Transport Phenomena, C. Gutfinger, Ed. (Halsted Press, New York, 1975), p. 211.

J. C. Chato, in Advanced Heat Transfer, B. T. Chao, Ed. (U. Illinois Press, Chicago, 1969), p. 395.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy for burn threshold vs laser pulse duration. The solid line represents an upper bound while the dashed line is a lower bound.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dimensionless depth of denaturization vs laser pulse duration (left scale) and dimensionless depth of burned tissue (right scale) for the upper bound model.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dimensionless depth of denaturization vs laser pulse duration (left scale) and dimensionless depth of burned tissue (right scale) for the lower bound model.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ratio between the depth of denaturization and the depth of burned tissue vs laser pulse duration for the upper bound model.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ratio between the depth of denaturization and the depth of burned tissue vs laser pulse duration for the lower bound model.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( r , z , t ) = β I 0 ( r , t ) exp ( β z ) ,
ρ c T t = K 2 T + S ( r , z , t ) ,
T ( z , t ) = 2 I 0 K ( k t ) 1 / 2 i erfc [ z 2 ( k t ) 1 / 2 ] I 0 K β exp ( β z ) + I 0 2 K β exp ( β 2 k t + β z ) erfc [ β ( k t ) 1 / 2 + z 2 ( k t ) 1 / 2 ] + I 0 2 K β exp ( β 2 k t β z ) erfc [ β ( k t ) 1 / 2 z 2 ( k t ) 1 / 2 ] ,
Ω ( z , t ) = 3.1 × 10 98 0 t exp { 150,000 / R [ T ( z , t ) + 273 ] } d t ,
I T = β K T b ( o , t ) 2 π β ( k t ) 1 / 2 + exp ( β 2 k t ) erfc [ β ( k t ) 1 / 2 ] 1 .

Metrics