Abstract

The influence of argon gas pressure (0.15–40 Pa) on the refractive indices n,k of dc planar-magnetron reactively sputtered cermet and amorphous semiconductor films has been investigated for a layer thickness of ~50 nm. Stainless steel–carbon and amorphous hydrogenated carbon layers with relatively low index n and stainless steel–silicon and amorphous hydrogenated silicon layers with relatively high index n are examined with a view to solar selective surface applications. The development of structural porosity with associated reduction in n for layers deposited at high argon pressure significantly improves the solar absorptance of surfaces incorporating stainless steel–silicon or amorphous hydrogenated silicon layers.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. C. Beekley, G. R. Mather, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1975), p. 220.
  2. Advertising literature; Advanced Energy Programs, General Electric Co., Philadelphia, Penn.
  3. W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.
  4. G. L. Harding, B. Window, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 2101 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Yin, J. C. Woo, T. Y. Tao, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1981), p. 482.
  6. I. T. Ritchie, B. Window, Appl. Opt. 16, 1438 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Thornton, Development of Selective Surfaces, Semi-annual Technical Progress Report TELIC 79-1 (Telic Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., 1979).
  8. R. Blickernsderfer, R. L. Lincoln, D. K. Deardorff, Report of Investigations 8167, Bureau of Mines (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).
  9. G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1070 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. L. Harding, S. Craig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 857 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Sikkens, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 403, 415 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. R. McKenzie, Thin Solid Films 62, 317 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 65 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  16. W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. A. Thornton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 245 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 205 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. C. C. Fan, S. A. Spura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 511 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.
  23. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.
  24. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, R. Payling, Surface Sci. (1983), to be published.
  25. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 833 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  26. S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1983), to be published.
  27. S. Ogura, Ph.D. Thesis, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic (1975).
  28. S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  29. I. T. Ritchie, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films 57, 315 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  31. D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–133.
  32. H. R. Philipp, E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 120, 37 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  33. J. C. Knights, R. A. Lujan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 244 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. C. Knights, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 159 (1980).
    [CrossRef]

1982

M. Sikkens, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 403, 415 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 833 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 205 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. C. Knights, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

J. C. Knights, R. A. Lujan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Ritchie, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films 57, 315 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. R. McKenzie, Thin Solid Films 62, 317 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, B. Window, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 2101 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, S. Craig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

I. T. Ritchie, B. Window, Appl. Opt. 16, 1438 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. C. C. Fan, S. A. Spura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 511 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1070 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

J. A. Thornton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1960

H. R. Philipp, E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 120, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Beekley, D. C.

D. C. Beekley, G. R. Mather, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1975), p. 220.

Blickernsderfer, R.

R. Blickernsderfer, R. L. Lincoln, D. K. Deardorff, Report of Investigations 8167, Bureau of Mines (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Boynton, R. J.

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Briggs, L. M.

L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Craig, S.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 833 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 205 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, S. Craig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, R. Payling, Surface Sci. (1983), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1983), to be published.

Deardorff, D. K.

R. Blickernsderfer, R. L. Lincoln, D. K. Deardorff, Report of Investigations 8167, Bureau of Mines (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Fan, J. C. C.

J. C. C. Fan, S. A. Spura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 511 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Harding, G. L.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 833 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 205 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, S. Craig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, B. Window, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 2101 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Ritchie, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films 57, 315 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1070 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, R. Payling, Surface Sci. (1983), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1983), to be published.

Harris, M.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hermann, W.

W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.

Horsten, H.

W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.

Ingrey, S. J.

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Kersten, R.

W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.

Knights, J. C.

J. C. Knights, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knights, R. A. Lujan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, R. L.

R. Blickernsderfer, R. L. Lincoln, D. K. Deardorff, Report of Investigations 8167, Bureau of Mines (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

Lujan, R. A.

J. C. Knights, R. A. Lujan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Majdjuri, F.

W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.

Mather, G. R.

D. C. Beekley, G. R. Mather, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1975), p. 220.

McKenzie, D. R.

L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. McKenzie, Thin Solid Films 62, 317 (1979).
[CrossRef]

McPhedran, R. C.

L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, J.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, Ph.D. Thesis, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic (1975).

Payling, R.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, R. Payling, Surface Sci. (1983), to be published.

Pelletier, E.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Philipp, H. R.

H. R. Philipp, E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 120, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Ritchie, I. T.

I. T. Ritchie, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films 57, 315 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Ritchie, B. Window, Appl. Opt. 16, 1438 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sikkens, M.

M. Sikkens, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 403, 415 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Spura, S. A.

J. C. C. Fan, S. A. Spura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 511 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Taft, E. A.

H. R. Philipp, E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 120, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Tao, T. Y.

C. C. Yin, J. C. Woo, T. Y. Tao, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1981), p. 482.

Thornton, J. A.

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Thornton, Development of Selective Surfaces, Semi-annual Technical Progress Report TELIC 79-1 (Telic Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., 1979).

Vidal, B.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Westwood, W. D.

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, P. S.

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Window, B.

G. L. Harding, B. Window, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 2101 (1979).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Ritchie, B. Window, Appl. Opt. 16, 1438 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woo, J. C.

C. C. Yin, J. C. Woo, T. Y. Tao, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1981), p. 482.

Yin, C. C.

C. C. Yin, J. C. Woo, T. Y. Tao, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1981), p. 482.

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci.

J. A. Thornton, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 7, 239 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. C. C. Fan, S. A. Spura, Appl. Phys. Lett. 30, 511 (1977).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Knights, R. A. Lujan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 244 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

J. C. Knights, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35/36, 159 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

J. A. Thornton, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 666 (1974).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 19, 205 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 21, 833 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 65 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, S. J. Ingrey, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 11, 381 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, B. Window, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 2101 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 13, 1070 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. L. Harding, S. Craig, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 16, 857 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

H. R. Philipp, E. A. Taft, Phys. Rev. 120, 37 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater.

L. M. Briggs, D. R. McKenzie, R. C. McPhedran, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 455 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. Sikkens, Sol. Energy Mater. 6, 403, 415 (1982).
[CrossRef]

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Sol. Energy Mater. 4, 245 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

W. D. Westwood, R. J. Boynton, P. S. Wilcox, Thin Solid Films 16, 1 (1973).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, J. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. R. McKenzie, Thin Solid Films 62, 317 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. Ogura, H. A. Macleod, Thin Solid Films 34, 371 (1976).
[CrossRef]

I. T. Ritchie, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films 57, 315 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. E. Gray, Ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1972), pp. 6–133.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1983), to be published.

S. Ogura, Ph.D. Thesis, Newcastle-upon-Tyne Polytechnic (1975).

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, Thin Solid Films (1982), to be published.

S. Craig, G. L. Harding, R. Payling, Surface Sci. (1983), to be published.

C. C. Yin, J. C. Woo, T. Y. Tao, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1981), p. 482.

D. C. Beekley, G. R. Mather, in Abstracts, International Solar Energy Society Congress (International Solar Energy Society, Newark, Del., 1975), p. 220.

Advertising literature; Advanced Energy Programs, General Electric Co., Philadelphia, Penn.

W. Hermann, H. Horsten, R. Kersten, F. Majdjuri, in Proceedings, International Solar Energy Society (Pergamon, New York, 1978), p. 950.

J. A. Thornton, Development of Selective Surfaces, Semi-annual Technical Progress Report TELIC 79-1 (Telic Corp., Santa Monica, Calif., 1979).

R. Blickernsderfer, R. L. Lincoln, D. K. Deardorff, Report of Investigations 8167, Bureau of Mines (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1976).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Refractive indices n,k vs wavelength λ for amorphous semiconductor and cermet films of thickness of ~50 nm. Solid symbols, n values; open symbols, k values. For α–C:H and α–Si:H: circles, argon deposition pressure 0.15 Pa; squares, argon deposition pressure 7.0 Pa; triangles, argon deposition pressure 40 Pa; crosses, n,k for 120-nm thick α–Si:H film deposited at 40-Pa pressure. For SS–C and SS–Si: circles, SS–C1 and SS–Si1; triangles, SS–C2 and SS–Si2; squares, SS–C3 and SS–Si3 (see Table I).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Reflectance R vs wavelength λ for copper/homogeneous stainless steel carbon (SS–C) or stainless steel silicon (SS–Si) interference layer selective surfaces. For Cu/SS–C selective surfaces: open circles, reflectance calculated for 78-nm thick SS–C1 layer on a copper base layer (AM2 α = 0.79); closed circles, reflectance measured for typical Cu/SS–C selective surface deposited at 0.5-Pa argon pressure10; open squares, reflectance calculated for 72-nm thick SS–C3 layer on a copper base layer (AM2 α = 0.78); closed squares, reflectance measured for typical Cu/SS–C selective surface deposited at 45 Pa.9 For Cu/SS–Si selective surfaces: open circles, reflectance calculated for 33-nm thick SS–Si1 layer on a copper base layer (AM2 α = 0.58); closed circles, reflectance measured for typical Cu/SS–Si selective surface deposited at 0.5-Pa argon pressure (manufactured in the magnetron coater described in Ref. 10); open squares, reflectance calculated for 72-nm thick SS–Si3 layer on a copper base layer (AM2 α = 0.78); closed squares, reflectance measured for typical Cu/SS–Si selective surface deposited at 40 Pa.13

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Deposition Conditions and Film Properties for Stainless Steel-carbon (SS–C), α–C:H, Stainless Steel Silicon (SS–Si) and α–Si:H

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