Abstract

A concept for indoor illumination of buildings using sunlight is described. For this system, a tracking concentrator on the building roof follows the sun and focuses sunlight into a lightguide. A system of transparent lightguides distributes the sunlight to interior rooms. Recent advances in the transparency of acrylic plastic optical fibers suggest that acrylic lightguides could be successfully used for piping sunlight. The proposed system displaces electricity currently used for indoor lighting. It is argued that using sunlight directly for indoor illumination would be about twenty-five times more cost-effective than using sunlight to generate electricity with solar cells for powering electric lamps for indoor lighting.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. A. Duguay, R. M. Edgar, Appl. Opt. 16, 1444 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. A. Duguay, Solar Electricity: The Hybrid System Approach, Am. Sci. 65, 422 (July-August1979).
  3. J. Parker, Now We Have Solar Illumination, Mech. Illus. 27, (November1977).
  4. S. Selkowitz, Effective Daylighting in Buildings (Parts 1 and 2), Light. Des. Appl. 9, 6–8, 10–11, 61 (Feb. Mar.1979).
  5. J. N. Ott, Health and Light (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1976.
  6. R. J. Wurtman, The Effects of Light on the Human Body, Sci. Am. 233, 68 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.
  8. R. O. Hughes, Sol. Energy 24, 83 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. F. Shepard, T. S. Chan, Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf., p 336 (1981).
  10. E. C. Boes, Photovoltaic Systems Definition Project 1977 Annual Report, SAND 78-0942, p. 57.
  11. S. E. Miller et al., Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Kato, T. Nakamura, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4528 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Kaino, M. Fujika, S. Oikawa, S. Nara, Appl. Opt. 20, 2886 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 267–271.
  16. L. A. Whitehead, R. A. Nodwell, F. L. Curzon, Appl. Opt. 21, 2755 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982

1981

T. Kaino, M. Fujika, S. Oikawa, S. Nara, Appl. Opt. 20, 2886 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Shepard, T. S. Chan, Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf., p 336 (1981).

1980

R. O. Hughes, Sol. Energy 24, 83 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

M. A. Duguay, Solar Electricity: The Hybrid System Approach, Am. Sci. 65, 422 (July-August1979).

S. Selkowitz, Effective Daylighting in Buildings (Parts 1 and 2), Light. Des. Appl. 9, 6–8, 10–11, 61 (Feb. Mar.1979).

1977

J. Parker, Now We Have Solar Illumination, Mech. Illus. 27, (November1977).

M. A. Duguay, R. M. Edgar, Appl. Opt. 16, 1444 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.

1976

D. Kato, T. Nakamura, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

R. J. Wurtman, The Effects of Light on the Human Body, Sci. Am. 233, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

S. E. Miller et al., Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Bird, R. B.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 267–271.

Boes, E. C.

E. C. Boes, Photovoltaic Systems Definition Project 1977 Annual Report, SAND 78-0942, p. 57.

Chan, T. S.

N. F. Shepard, T. S. Chan, Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf., p 336 (1981).

Cunningham, L.

L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.

Curzon, F. L.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Solar Electricity: The Hybrid System Approach, Am. Sci. 65, 422 (July-August1979).

M. A. Duguay, R. M. Edgar, Appl. Opt. 16, 1444 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edgar, R. M.

Fujii, M.

T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fujika, M.

Hughes, R. O.

R. O. Hughes, Sol. Energy 24, 83 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

T. Kaino, M. Fujika, S. Oikawa, S. Nara, Appl. Opt. 20, 2886 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kato, D.

D. Kato, T. Nakamura, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lightfoot, E. N.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 267–271.

Miller, S. E.

S. E. Miller et al., Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, T.

D. Kato, T. Nakamura, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nara, S.

T. Kaino, M. Fujika, S. Oikawa, S. Nara, Appl. Opt. 20, 2886 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Nodwell, R. A.

Oikawa, S.

Ott, J. N.

J. N. Ott, Health and Light (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1976.

Parascandola, L.

L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.

Parker, J.

J. Parker, Now We Have Solar Illumination, Mech. Illus. 27, (November1977).

Selkowitz, S.

S. Selkowitz, Effective Daylighting in Buildings (Parts 1 and 2), Light. Des. Appl. 9, 6–8, 10–11, 61 (Feb. Mar.1979).

Shepard, N. F.

N. F. Shepard, T. S. Chan, Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf., p 336 (1981).

Stewart, W. E.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 267–271.

Thorington, L.

L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.

Whitehead, L. A.

Wurtman, R. J.

R. J. Wurtman, The Effects of Light on the Human Body, Sci. Am. 233, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Am. Sci.

M. A. Duguay, Solar Electricity: The Hybrid System Approach, Am. Sci. 65, 422 (July-August1979).

Appl. Opt.

Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf.

N. F. Shepard, T. S. Chan, Fifteenth IEEE Photovolatic Special Conf., p 336 (1981).

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Kato, T. Nakamura, J. Appl. Phys. 47, 4528 (1976).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, M. Fujii, S. Nara, Low Loss Polystyrene Core Optical Fibers, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 7061 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Illum. Eng. Soc.

L. Thorington, L. Parascandola, L. Cunningham, Visual and Biologic Aspects of an Artificial Sunlight Illuminant, J. Illum. Eng. Soc., 67: 33–41, 1977.

Light. Des. Appl.

S. Selkowitz, Effective Daylighting in Buildings (Parts 1 and 2), Light. Des. Appl. 9, 6–8, 10–11, 61 (Feb. Mar.1979).

Mech. Illus.

J. Parker, Now We Have Solar Illumination, Mech. Illus. 27, (November1977).

Proc. IEEE

S. E. Miller et al., Proc. IEEE 61, 1703 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Am.

R. J. Wurtman, The Effects of Light on the Human Body, Sci. Am. 233, 68 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

R. O. Hughes, Sol. Energy 24, 83 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. N. Ott, Health and Light (Simon & Schuster, New York, 1976.

E. C. Boes, Photovoltaic Systems Definition Project 1977 Annual Report, SAND 78-0942, p. 57.

R. B. Bird, W. E. Stewart, E. N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1960), pp. 267–271.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic concept for solar illumination.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Office building layout.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Lens and tracker configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angle of total internal reflection.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission losses: (A) soda lime glass; (B) polymethylmethacrylate fiber.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Estimation of Lighting System Cost

Metrics