Abstract

The gel rod, partially polymerized CR-39 [diethylene glycol-bis-(allyl carbonate)], is placed in the atmosphere of trifluoroethyl methacrylate (3FMA) vapor, followed by heat-treatment to yield the GRIN rod. Examining the relationship between the preparation conditions and the optical properties of the GRIN rod, the plastic GRIN rods with a quadratic-index distribution up to their periphery and with higher than 0.36 N.A. were fabricated.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).
  2. T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, I. Kitano, K. Nishizawa, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 535 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.)35, 721 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. Iga, N. Yamamoto, Appl. Opt. 16, 1305 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. N. Yamamoto, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1101 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, (11), 439 (1981), in English.
  14. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, (11), 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

1978 (3)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

1973 (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1970 (3)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

E. G. Rawson, D. R. Herriott, J. McKenna, Appl. Opt. 9, 753 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. P. Kapron, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1433 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Chino, M.

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, M.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

Herriott, D. R.

Hirosawa, A.

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Iga, K.

Kapron, F. P.

Kimoto, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitano, I.

T. Miyazawa, K. Okada, T. Kubo, I. Kitano, K. Nishizawa, K. Iga, Appl. Opt. 19, 1113 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

Koike, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, (11), 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koizumi, K.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

Kubo, T.

Matsumura, H.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

McKenna, J.

Miyazawa, T.

Nishizawa, K.

Ohtsuka, Y.

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Opt. 21, 1057 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, H. Yamazaki, Appl. Opt. 20, 280 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, (11), 439 (1981), in English.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Appl. Opt. 19, 2866 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.)35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Okada, K.

Rawson, E. G.

Senga, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.)35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sugano, T.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Terao, Y.

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Sugano, Y. Terao, Appl. Opt. 20, 2319 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, T.

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

Yamamoto, N.

Yamazaki, H.

Appl. Opt. (8)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 247 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci. (2)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Terao, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 26, 2907 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Koike, Y. Kimoto, Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 27, 3253 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. (1)

I. Kitano, K. Koizumi, H. Matsumura, T. Uchida, M. Furukawa, J. Jpn. Soc. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 39, 63 (1970).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, A. Hirosawa, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Poly. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 535 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) (3)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, T. Sugano, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 38, 45 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Shimizu, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 169 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohtsuka, M. Chino, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.) 35, 735 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, Y. Koike, Sen-i Gakkaishi (J. Soc. Fiber Sci. Tech. Jpn.) 37, (11), 439 (1981), in English.

Other (1)

Y. Ohtsuka, T. Senga, Kobunshi Ronbunshu (J. Soc. Polym. Sci. Jpn.)35, 721 (1978).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Block diagram of vapor-phase transfer process.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic representation of the apparatus for the vapor-phase transfer process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Composition of CR-39 prepolymer gel rod. T1 = 90°C; I1 (wt. %): (○,●) 1.96; (Δ,ϕ) 1.48.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of T2 on the optical characteristics of the LFRs. I1 = 1.48 wt. %; T1 = 90°C; t1 = 40 min; υ = 5.0 mliters; T2 (○,●) 80°C; (Δ,▲) 90°C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of BPO concentration on the optical characteristics of the LFRs. T1 = T2 = 90.0°C; υ = 5.0 mliters; gel rod: (○,●) I1 = 1.96 wt. % and t1 = 30 min; (Δ,▲) I1 = 1.48 wt. % and t1 = 40 min.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of υ (amount of 3FMA) on the optical characteristics of the LFRs. T1 = T2 = T3 = 90.0°C, I1 = 1.96 wt. %, t1 = 30 min, t3 = 20 h. υ: (○,●,◑) 5.0 mliters; (Δ,▲,◮) 8.0 mliters; (□,■,◨) 10.0 mliters.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of t1 on the optical characteristics of the LFRs. T1 = T2 = T3 = 90.0°C; t3 = 20 h; I1 = 1.96 wt. %; υ = 8.0 mliters; t2 = 30 min.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Refractive-index distribution of the representative CR-39–3FMA LFR.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of the test chart (figure × 0.024 = lines/mm): LFR, 3.81 mm ϕ × 13.02 mm; L = 48.70 mm; and N.A. = 0.359.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Material balance in the vapor-phase transfer process of CR-39 (M1)–3FMA (M2) system.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Selected Physical Properties of Monomers

Equations (4)

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n ( r ) = n 0 ( 1 1 2 A r 2 ) ,
L = 2 π / A .
γ = cos ( A Z ) n 0 A l 1 sin ( A Z ) ,
n 2 = n 0 2 [ 1 ( g r ) 2 + h 4 ( g r ) 4 + h 6 ( g r ) 6 ] .

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