Abstract

A gradient-index (GRIN) endoscope can be constructed by substituting for the usual objective and relay sections suitable cylindrical index-distribution rod lenses. Currently available GRIN lenses exhibit large amounts of chromatic aberration. Axial color arises mostly from the relay lens, while lateral color is due to the objective lens. A negative lens cemented to a shortened GRIN relay lens can simultaneously correct axial and lateral chromatic aberrations with commercially available components. This correction system reduces the requirements for mechanical centration better than do color correctors that are incorporated into the ocular design. Monochromatic aberrations are also considered.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. Prescott, D. Leiner, U.S. Patent Pend. Ser. 361,266.
  2. M. Watanabe, S. Takeda, H. Ikeuchi, Atlas of Arthroscopy (Springer, New York, 1979).
  3. Needlescope is a registered trade name of Dyonics, Inc., Andover, Mass.
  4. Selfoc is a registered trade name of the Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.
  5. A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design, Part 1 (Dover, New York, 1957), p. 185.
  6. P. J. Sands, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1436 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. T. Moore, P. J. Sands, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 61, 1195 (1971).
    [CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1970 (1)

Conrady, A. E.

A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design, Part 1 (Dover, New York, 1957), p. 185.

Ikeuchi, H.

M. Watanabe, S. Takeda, H. Ikeuchi, Atlas of Arthroscopy (Springer, New York, 1979).

Leiner, D.

R. Prescott, D. Leiner, U.S. Patent Pend. Ser. 361,266.

Moore, D. T.

Prescott, R.

R. Prescott, D. Leiner, U.S. Patent Pend. Ser. 361,266.

Sands, P. J.

Takeda, S.

M. Watanabe, S. Takeda, H. Ikeuchi, Atlas of Arthroscopy (Springer, New York, 1979).

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, S. Takeda, H. Ikeuchi, Atlas of Arthroscopy (Springer, New York, 1979).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

Other (5)

R. Prescott, D. Leiner, U.S. Patent Pend. Ser. 361,266.

M. Watanabe, S. Takeda, H. Ikeuchi, Atlas of Arthroscopy (Springer, New York, 1979).

Needlescope is a registered trade name of Dyonics, Inc., Andover, Mass.

Selfoc is a registered trade name of the Nippon Sheet Glass Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

A. E. Conrady, Applied Optics and Optical Design, Part 1 (Dover, New York, 1957), p. 185.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical gradient-index endoscope. The needle portion consists of GRIN optics. The ocular is a compound microscope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical train of needle portion. The object is imaged onto the rear face of the objective lens and reimaged the required penetration depth to the back of the relay lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relay lens of gradient-index endoscope showing chromatic aberration correction procedure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Lateral chromatic aberration vs relay length with zero axial color; AOT-5 glass.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Alternate correction configurations. Commercially available GRIN optics are undercorrect in both axial and lateral color.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic of arrangement for the measurement of distortion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Third-order distortion of Selfoc objective lens vs h4. Object distance is adjusted for zero image distance.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Residual third-order aberrations vs relay length with zero axial color; AOT-5 glass. Aberrations are normalized for image size variation by plotting in terms of the Rayleigh tolerance.

Tables (1)

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Table I Specifications of Color-Corrected Endoscope

Equations (3)

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C = 1 l d + N d N F N C l C l F l d 2 ,
y ( n ) = a 0 + a 1 ( n n c ) + a 2 ( n n c ) 2 + a 3 ( n n c ) 3 + ,
D = a 3 a 1 ( n n c ) max 2 * 100 % ,

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