Abstract

Pulsed laser excitation of OH(AX), NH2 (AX), and CO2 (10.6-μm vibrational hot band) has been detected optoacoustically in flames. Detection sensitivities approaching 1 part in 109, 105, and 105, respectively, were obtained for these species. The form and characteristics of the pressure wave were examined, using OH in flames excited by dye laser and SF6 in a cold flow excited by a CO2 laser, to optimize the laser beam and microphone geometry and understand the influence of the microphone frequency response. Attempts to detect H2O using the vibrational overtone bands near 590 nm were successful in the vapor near 310 K but failed in the hot flame gases.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. G. Bell, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 29, 115 (1880).
  2. Y. H. Pao, Ed., Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).
  3. D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium 134, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, Opt. Eng. 22, 545 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. C. Smyth, W. G. Mallard, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1779 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, Opt. Lett. 1, 118 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Tennal, G. J. Salamo, R. Gupta, Appl. Opt. 21, 2133 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).
  10. K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977);L. M. Lyamshev, K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 22, 354 (1976);C. Hu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 728 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1982), p. 107.
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Instructions and Applications (Bruel and Kjaer Condensor Microphones, Copenhagen, 1971).
  15. L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, London, 1959).
  16. P. L. Varghese, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.
  17. J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Opt. 18, 2100 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. I. I. Glass, Shock Tubes, U. Toronto Institute of Aerophysics Review 12 (Toronto, 1958).
  19. J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Dressier, D. A. Ramsay, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 553 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  21. M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. H. Chang, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.
  24. C. F. Morley, Combust. Flame 47, 67 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  25. R. M. Greene, J. A. Miller, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 313 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  27. G. P. Smith, J. R. Barker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 253 (1981).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (2)

D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, Opt. Eng. 22, 545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (6)

C. F. Morley, Combust. Flame 47, 67 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth, W. G. Mallard, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1779 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. Tennal, G. J. Salamo, R. Gupta, Appl. Opt. 21, 2133 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (5)

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Greene, J. A. Miller, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 313 (1981).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, J. R. Barker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 253 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

J. H. Bechtel, Appl. Opt. 18, 2100 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, Opt. Lett. 1, 118 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977);L. M. Lyamshev, K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 22, 354 (1976);C. Hu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 728 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

K. Dressier, D. A. Ramsay, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 553 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1880 (1)

A. G. Bell, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 29, 115 (1880).

Allen, J. E.

Anderson, W. R.

Antipov, A. B.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Barker, J. R.

G. P. Smith, J. R. Barker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 253 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baronavski, A. P.

V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, J. H.

Bell, A. G.

A. G. Bell, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 29, 115 (1880).

Branch, M. C.

J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bykov, A. D.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. H.

P. H. Chang, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

Chou, M. S.

M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Crosely, D. R.

M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).

Crosley, D. R.

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, Opt. Eng. 22, 545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Allen, W. R. Anderson, D. R. Crosley, Opt. Lett. 1, 118 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Chang, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1982), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

P. L. Varghese, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

Dean, A. M.

M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Donnelly, V. M.

V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Dressier, K.

K. Dressier, D. A. Ramsay, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 553 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Dyer, M. J.

M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).

Fairchild, P. W.

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1982), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

Glass, I. I.

I. I. Glass, Shock Tubes, U. Toronto Institute of Aerophysics Review 12 (Toronto, 1958).

Golden, D. M.

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Greene, R. M.

R. M. Greene, J. A. Miller, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 313 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

Kapitanov, V. A.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kee, R. J.

J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Lewis, K. E.

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

Lopasov, V. P.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Makushkin, Yu. S.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mallard, W. G.

K. C. Smyth, W. G. Mallard, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1779 (1982).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, J. R.

V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, D. F.

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. A.

J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Greene, J. A. Miller, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 313 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Morley, C. F.

C. F. Morley, Combust. Flame 47, 67 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Naugolnykl, K. A.

K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977);L. M. Lyamshev, K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 22, 354 (1976);C. Hu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 728 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Ramsay, D. A.

K. Dressier, D. A. Ramsay, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 553 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Salamo, G. J.

Smith, G. P.

D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, Opt. Eng. 22, 545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Smith, J. R. Barker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 253 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1982), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

Smyth, K. C.

K. C. Smyth, W. G. Mallard, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1779 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Stern, D.

M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Tennal, K.

Tolmachev, V. I.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ulenikov, O. N.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Varghese, P. L.

P. L. Varghese, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

Zuev, V. E.

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

M. J. Dyer, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosely, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 27, 882 (1982).

Chem. Phys. (1)

V. M. Donnelly, A. P. Baronavski, J. R. McDonald, Chem. Phys. 43, 283 (1979);J. G. Halpern, G. Hancock, M. Lenzi, K. H. Welge, J. Chem. Phys. 63, 4808 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. P. Smith, J. R. Barker, Chem. Phys. Lett. 78, 253 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Combust. Flame (2)

J. A. Miller, M. C. Branch, R. J. Kee, Combust. Flame 43, 81 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Morley, Combust. Flame 47, 67 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

M. S. Chou, A. M. Dean, D. Stern, J. Chem. Phys. 76, 5334 (1982).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Smyth, W. G. Mallard, J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1779 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, J. Chem. Phys. 79, 1795 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

A. B. Antipov, A. D. Bykov, V. A. Kapitanov, V. P. Lopasov, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. I. Tolmachev, O. N. Ulenikov, V. E. Zuev, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 89, 449 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. F. McMillen, K. E. Lewis, G. P. Smith, D. M. Golden, J. Phys. Chem. 86, 709 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

R. M. Greene, J. A. Miller, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 26, 313 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. R. Crosley, G. P. Smith, Opt. Eng. 22, 545 (1983).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

K. Dressier, D. A. Ramsay, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A 251, 553 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. (1)

A. G. Bell, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. 29, 115 (1880).

Sov. Phys. Acoust. (1)

K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 23, 98 (1977);L. M. Lyamshev, K. A. Naugolnykl, Sov. Phys. Acoust. 22, 354 (1976);C. Hu, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 46, 728 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Other (8)

Y. H. Pao, Ed., Optoacoustic Spectroscopy and Detection (Academic, New York, 1977).

D. R. Crosley, Ed., Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, ACS Symposium 134, (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980).
[CrossRef]

P. W. Fairchild, G. P. Smith, D. R. Crosley, in Nineteenth International Symposium on Combustion, (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1982), p. 107.
[CrossRef]

I. I. Glass, Shock Tubes, U. Toronto Institute of Aerophysics Review 12 (Toronto, 1958).

Instructions and Applications (Bruel and Kjaer Condensor Microphones, Copenhagen, 1971).

L. D. Landau, E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, London, 1959).

P. L. Varghese, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

P. H. Chang, D. R. Crosley, unpublished results.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental apparatus. In some experiments the flame was replaced by other gas absorber samples as described in the text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pressure pulse waveforms with various microphones and in various conditions. (A) through (E) are for SF6 excited by the CO2 laser. (A) B & K 4138, (B) B & K 4135, (C) B & K 4134, (D) RS, all with 1-cm diam circular laser beam; (E) B & K 4138, 0.2 × 1.0-cm sheet laser beam; (F) B & K 4138, pulse from OH in the flame using a 0.2-cm diam beam. The vertical scales are different for each trace.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Log-log plots of microphone response vs source center-to-microphone distance: circles, cylindrical beam (slope, −0.56); crosses, 0.2-cm wide × 1.0-cm high sheet beam (slope at large r, −0.47); triangles, cylindrical beam with 1.9-cm diam burner (slope, −0.98).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Excitation scans through Q-head region of (0,0) band of OH A2Σ+X2Πi system. Top (downward signals), LIF with (0,1) band detection. Bottom (upward signals), optoacoustic signals. The traces are slightly offset for clarity; main Q -branches are marked.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Boltzmann plots from a series of P and Q lines in excitation scans of OH as in Fig. 4: circles, optoacoustic detection; triangles, LIF. The fitted temperatures are indicated.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Signal vs laser energy (arbitrary units, both axes) for OH in a flame: circles, optoacoustic; triangles, LIF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Excitation scan using optoacoustic detection through (0,8,0) bandhead of A 2 A 1 X 2 B 1 system of NH2 in an NH3/O2 flame. The rotational lines marked are assigned according to the absorption analysis of Ref. 20, where the NH2 was produced in flash photolysis. The additional lines are likely due to higher rotational levels populated in the hot flame.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optoacoustically detected excitation scan in the 590-nm overtone region of the H2O molecule in 310 K vapor in air above heated liquid water. The marks denote lines (and relative intensities) in this region as listed in Ref. 26; those with asterisks are the 3,2,1 band, and those without asterisks are the 4,0,1 band.

Tables (1)

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Table I Microphone Characteristics

Equations (2)

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Δ T = Δ E / C υ π R o 2 l
P c = ( R 0 r ) 1 / 2 ρ Δ T .

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