Abstract

A handheld sunphotometer has been developed and is described. It operates for 9 wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. The sensitivity range is rather broad, so it can be used in turbid as well as clear atmospheres. The operation is simple, and a digital readout helps prevent operator biases. The instrument is sun powered and suitable for network operations. Determination of the atmospheric turbidity due to aerosol and the column content of O3, NO2, H2O is possible.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Se3r. B 10, 100 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  2. F. Roessler, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklamatol. Ser. B 19, 157 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Cerf, “Atmospheric Turbidity Measurements in West-Africa,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere,H. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), pp. 16–17.
  4. R. Jaenicke, L. Schütz, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3585 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Frölich, “WMO/PMOD Sunphotometer: Instructions for Manufacture,” World Meteorological Organization Report, Geneva, Switzerland (1977).
  7. P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. S. Fraser, Appl. Opt. 15, 2471 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. T. N. Carlson, P. Wendling, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1368 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, “Monitoring of Atmospheric Turbidity from Geostationary Satellites,” presented at the WMO Technical Conference on Regional and Global Observation of Atmospheric Pollution Relative to Climate, Boulder, Colo., 20–24 Aug. 1979, WMO 529 (1980).
  13. U. Katergiannakis, Wolken im Satellitenbild D2 Sand und Staub in der Atmosphäre, Beilage z. Berliner Wetterkarte MSF 4/82.
  14. J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).
  16. G. S. Kent, Appl. Opt. 17, 3763 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. K. Fredriksson, B. Galle, K. Nystrom, S. Swanberg, Appl. Opt. 18, 2998 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. H. Müller, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 13 (1980).
  19. C. Werner, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 6 (1980).
  20. F. Kasten, “A New Table and Approximation Formula for the Relative Optical Air Mas,” Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Technical Report 136 (1964).
  21. The calibration was done in the Meteorologisches Observatorium Hamburg, Deutscher Wetterdienst with the technical and friendly help of K. Dehne.
  22. The light source has been calibrated by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (National Bureau of Weights and Measures).
  23. M. P. Thekaekata, R. Kruger, C. H. Duncan, Appl. Opt. 8, 1713 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  24. D. Labs, H. Neckel, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1 (1968).
  25. N. S. Laulainen, B. J. Taylor, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 298 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  27. F. Volz, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1209 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Hänel, J. Aerosol. Sci. 3, 377 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  29. W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (U. Toronto Press, Toronto, 1963).
  30. J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).
  31. H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1785 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. Okada, K. Isono, Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 777 (1981).
  33. T. C. Hall, F. E. Blacet, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745 (1952).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. R. Noxon, Science 189, 547 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 5791 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  36. E. C. Y. Inn, Y. Tanaka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  37. E. Vigroux, Ann. Phys. N. Y. 8, 709 (1953).
  38. H. Quenzel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 39, 112 (1966).
  39. K. W. Brown, J. E. Dennis, Numer. Math. 18, 289 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  41. L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagon, Appl. Opt. 21, 1191 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. Eiden, Circumsolar Sky Radiation, Second Solar Energy Program of the Commission of the European Communities, Project F, Solar Radiation Data Report (1981).
  43. H. Grassl, Appl. Opt. 10, 2542 (1971).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. R. Jaenicke, G. A. d'Almeida, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 233 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  45. G. A. d'Almeida, “Development of a New Sunphotometer and Establishment of a Network Across Africa for the Investigation of the Transport of Saharan Dust,” in Atmospheric Trace Constituents,F. Herbert, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1982), pp. 85–95.
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. Jaenicke, G. A. d'Almeida, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (3)

L. W. Thomason, B. M. Herman, R. M. Schotland, J. A. Reagon, Appl. Opt. 21, 1191 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (3)

H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1785 (1981).
[CrossRef]

K. Okada, K. Isono, Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 777 (1981).

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (3)

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

H. Müller, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 13 (1980).

C. Werner, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 6 (1980).

1979 (2)

1978 (2)

R. Jaenicke, L. Schütz, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3585 (1978).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Kent, Appl. Opt. 17, 3763 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977 (1)

T. N. Carlson, P. Wendling, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1368 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, Appl. Opt. 15, 2471 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. R. Noxon, Science 189, 547 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1974 (4)

J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).

N. S. Laulainen, B. J. Taylor, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Volz, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

G. Hänel, J. Aerosol. Sci. 3, 377 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Brown, J. E. Dennis, Numer. Math. 18, 289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971 (2)

F. Roessler, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklamatol. Ser. B 19, 157 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. Grassl, Appl. Opt. 10, 2542 (1971).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

1968 (1)

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1 (1968).

1966 (1)

H. Quenzel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 39, 112 (1966).

1959 (1)

F. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Se3r. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1953 (2)

E. Vigroux, Ann. Phys. N. Y. 8, 709 (1953).

E. C. Y. Inn, Y. Tanaka, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 43, 870 (1953).
[CrossRef]

1952 (1)

T. C. Hall, F. E. Blacet, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Bahethi, O. P.

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Baudet, J.

J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).

Bertrand, J.

J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).

Blacet, F. E.

T. C. Hall, F. E. Blacet, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. W.

K. W. Brown, J. E. Dennis, Numer. Math. 18, 289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, D. M.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, T. N.

T. N. Carlson, P. Wendling, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1368 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Carnuth, W.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).

Cerf, A.

A. Cerf, “Atmospheric Turbidity Measurements in West-Africa,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere,H. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), pp. 16–17.

d'Almeida, G. A.

R. Jaenicke, G. A. d'Almeida, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. A. d'Almeida, “Development of a New Sunphotometer and Establishment of a Network Across Africa for the Investigation of the Transport of Saharan Dust,” in Atmospheric Trace Constituents,F. Herbert, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1982), pp. 85–95.
[CrossRef]

Dennis, J. E.

K. W. Brown, J. E. Dennis, Numer. Math. 18, 289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Drochon, A.

J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).

Duncan, C. H.

Eiden, R.

R. Eiden, Circumsolar Sky Radiation, Second Solar Energy Program of the Commission of the European Communities, Project F, Solar Radiation Data Report (1981).

Fraser, R. S.

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Fraser, Appl. Opt. 15, 2471 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fredriksson, K.

Frölich, C.

C. Frölich, “WMO/PMOD Sunphotometer: Instructions for Manufacture,” World Meteorological Organization Report, Geneva, Switzerland (1977).

Galle, B.

Grassl, H.

Hall, T. C.

T. C. Hall, F. E. Blacet, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745 (1952).
[CrossRef]

Hänel, G.

G. Hänel, J. Aerosol. Sci. 3, 377 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Herman, B. M.

Hinton, B.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, H.

H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1785 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Inn, E. C. Y.

Isono, K.

K. Okada, K. Isono, Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 777 (1981).

Jaenicke, R.

R. Jaenicke, G. A. d'Almeida, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

R. Jaenicke, L. Schütz, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3585 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Jäger, J. H.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).

Kaestner, M.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, “Monitoring of Atmospheric Turbidity from Geostationary Satellites,” presented at the WMO Technical Conference on Regional and Global Observation of Atmospheric Pollution Relative to Climate, Boulder, Colo., 20–24 Aug. 1979, WMO 529 (1980).

Kasten, F.

F. Kasten, “A New Table and Approximation Formula for the Relative Optical Air Mas,” Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Technical Report 136 (1964).

Kent, G. S.

King, M. D.

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Koepke, P.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, “Monitoring of Atmospheric Turbidity from Geostationary Satellites,” presented at the WMO Technical Conference on Regional and Global Observation of Atmospheric Pollution Relative to Climate, Boulder, Colo., 20–24 Aug. 1979, WMO 529 (1980).

Kruger, R.

Kuhlow, W.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Labs, D.

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1 (1968).

Laulainen, N. S.

N. S. Laulainen, B. J. Taylor, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Littfass, M.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).

Martin, W. D.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Middleton, W. E. K.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (U. Toronto Press, Toronto, 1963).

Mosher, F. R.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H.

H. Müller, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 13 (1980).

Neckel, H.

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1 (1968).

Norten, C. C.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Noxon, J. R.

J. R. Noxon, Science 189, 547 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nystrom, K.

Okada, K.

K. Okada, K. Isono, Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 777 (1981).

Otterman, J.

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prodi, F.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Quenzel, H.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. Quenzel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 39, 112 (1966).

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, “Monitoring of Atmospheric Turbidity from Geostationary Satellites,” presented at the WMO Technical Conference on Regional and Global Observation of Atmospheric Pollution Relative to Climate, Boulder, Colo., 20–24 Aug. 1979, WMO 529 (1980).

Reagon, J. A.

Reiter, R.

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).

Roessler, F.

F. Roessler, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklamatol. Ser. B 19, 157 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. B.

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Santek, D.

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

Schütz, L.

R. Jaenicke, L. Schütz, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3585 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, G. E.

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Swanberg, S.

Tanaka, Y.

Taylor, B. J.

N. S. Laulainen, B. J. Taylor, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Thekaekata, M. P.

Thomason, L. W.

Tomasi, C.

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vigroux, E.

E. Vigroux, Ann. Phys. N. Y. 8, 709 (1953).

Volz, F.

F. Volz, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Se3r. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Wendling, P.

T. N. Carlson, P. Wendling, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1368 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Werner, C.

C. Werner, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 6 (1980).

Ann. Meteorol. (2)

H. Müller, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 13 (1980).

C. Werner, Ann. Meteorol. 15, 6 (1980).

Ann. Phys. N. Y. (1)

E. Vigroux, Ann. Phys. N. Y. 8, 709 (1953).

Appl. Opt. (6)

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklamatol. Ser. B (1)

F. Roessler, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklamatol. Ser. B 19, 157 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Se3r. B (1)

F. Volz, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol. Se3r. B 10, 100 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

H. Horvath, Atmos. Environ. 15, 1785 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Beitr. Phys. Atmos. (1)

H. Quenzel, Beitr. Phys. Atmos. 39, 112 (1966).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

R. Jaenicke, G. A. d'Almeida, Geophys. Res. Lett. 10, 233 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Aerosol. Sci. (1)

G. Hänel, J. Aerosol. Sci. 3, 377 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (5)

N. S. Laulainen, B. J. Taylor, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 298 (1974).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Russell, G. E. Shaw, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1206 (1974).
[CrossRef]

F. Volz, J. Appl. Meteorol. 14, 1209 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Carlson, P. Wendling, J. Appl. Meteorol. 16, 1368 (1977).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Norten, F. R. Mosher, B. Hinton, W. D. Martin, D. Santek, W. Kuhlow, J. Appl. Meteorol. 19, 633 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci. (1)

M. D. King, D. M. Byrne, J. Atmos. Sci. 33, 2242 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

T. C. Hall, F. E. Blacet, J. Chem. Phys. 20, 1745 (1952).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (6)

G. E. Shaw, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 5791 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. Jaenicke, L. Schütz, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 3585 (1978).
[CrossRef]

C. Tomasi, F. Prodi, J. Geophys. Res. 87, 1279 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 7847 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, J. Geophys. Res. 86, 9801 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Otterman, R. S. Fraser, O. P. Bahethi, J. Geophys. Res. 20, 1270 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. (1)

K. Okada, K. Isono, Jpn. J. Meteorol. Soc. 60, 777 (1981).

Numer. Math. (1)

K. W. Brown, J. E. Dennis, Numer. Math. 18, 289 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. Rech. Atmos. (1)

J. Bertrand, J. Baudet, A. Drochon, R. Rech. Atmos. 8, 845 (1974).

Science (1)

J. R. Noxon, Science 189, 547 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Astrophys. (1)

D. Labs, H. Neckel, Z. Astrophys. 69, 1 (1968).

Other (11)

R. Reiter, W. Carnuth, M. Littfass, J. H. Jäger, Analysis of Aerosol Transport, Aerosol Remote Sensing by Lidar, Annual Report, Vol. 2 (1976).

C. Frölich, “WMO/PMOD Sunphotometer: Instructions for Manufacture,” World Meteorological Organization Report, Geneva, Switzerland (1977).

A. Cerf, “Atmospheric Turbidity Measurements in West-Africa,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Radiation in the Atmosphere,H. J. Bolle, Ed. (Science Press, Princeton, N.J., 1977), pp. 16–17.

P. Koepke, H. Quenzel, M. Kaestner, “Monitoring of Atmospheric Turbidity from Geostationary Satellites,” presented at the WMO Technical Conference on Regional and Global Observation of Atmospheric Pollution Relative to Climate, Boulder, Colo., 20–24 Aug. 1979, WMO 529 (1980).

U. Katergiannakis, Wolken im Satellitenbild D2 Sand und Staub in der Atmosphäre, Beilage z. Berliner Wetterkarte MSF 4/82.

W. E. K. Middleton, Vision Through the Atmosphere (U. Toronto Press, Toronto, 1963).

R. Eiden, Circumsolar Sky Radiation, Second Solar Energy Program of the Commission of the European Communities, Project F, Solar Radiation Data Report (1981).

F. Kasten, “A New Table and Approximation Formula for the Relative Optical Air Mas,” Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory Technical Report 136 (1964).

The calibration was done in the Meteorologisches Observatorium Hamburg, Deutscher Wetterdienst with the technical and friendly help of K. Dehne.

The light source has been calibrated by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Braunschweig (National Bureau of Weights and Measures).

G. A. d'Almeida, “Development of a New Sunphotometer and Establishment of a Network Across Africa for the Investigation of the Transport of Saharan Dust,” in Atmospheric Trace Constituents,F. Herbert, Ed. (Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1982), pp. 85–95.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Open sunphotometer from the back. In the front, the filter wheel housing can be seen followed by the potentiometer for sun elevation measurements. The liquid crystal display appears on top.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Several functions useful for the sunphotometer as function of wavelength. In addition, bands for O3, NO2, and H2O are indicated and used to calculate the amounts of these substances.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative response of the photodiode as a function of wavelength and temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Example of calibration for 4 wavelengths on a constant turbidity day (instrument: S/N MUT 8-80).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angstrom's turbidity parameters αand β, Linke's spectral turbidity factor TL at 500 nm, total ozone content η in centimeters STP, and wind direction WD for one year in Assekrem (2730 m, Algeria).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I ( λ , h ) = I o ( λ ) exp [ τ g ( λ ) M ( h ) ] .
M ( h ) = 1 sin h + 0.15 ( h + 3.885 ) 1.253 ,
I ( λ , h ) = G T ̅ f ( λ ) T ̅ g 1 ( λ ) S ̅ ( λ ) J 0 ( λ ) Δ λ exp { [ τ R ( λ ) p p 0 + τ A ( λ ) + τ gas ( λ ) ] M ( h ) }
G = ( 1 c ) C A ( θ 3 2 ) .
I 0 ( λ ) = G T ̅ f ( λ ) T ̅ g 1 ( λ ) S ̅ ( λ ) J 0 ( λ ) Δ λ ,
B ( λ i ) = E ( λ i ) Δ λ i B ( λ = 600 nm ) E ( λ = 600 nm ) Δ λ 600 ,

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