Abstract

Airborne depth-resolved laser-induced sea-water Raman-backscatter waveforms have been obtained along a flight line extending westward from a point ∼30 km seaward of Assateague Island to a point where the beach was intersected at latitude 38.1°N and longitude 75.2° W. Pulses from a 337.1-nm nitrogen laser were repetitively transmitted vertically downward into the water column. The laser-induced water Raman backscatter pulse at 381-nm wavelength was depth (or time) resolved into forty bins having widths of ∼25 cm each. When converted to along-track profiles, the waveforms reveal cells of decreased Raman backscatter superimposed on an overall trend of monotonically decreasing water column optical transmission. This airborne lidar technique shows potential for (1) rapid, quantitative, synoptic study of the homogeneity of the oceanic water column and (2) measurement of the horizontal spatial distribution of the optical transmission of the upper mixed layer of the ocean. A multiple convolution model of a Gaussian transmitted pulse, Gaussian sea surface height, and slope probability density, together with an exponential-decay water-column impulse response, is shown to qualitatively account for the observed pulse shape.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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1983 (1)

1982 (5)

1981 (4)

1980 (4)

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Olson, Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 585 (1980).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Hayne, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-28, 687 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (2)

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, Nature (London) 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977 (3)

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

R. M. Measures, Appl. Opt. 16, 1092 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Brown, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 67 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1976 (3)

D. M. Rayner, A. R. McKinnon, A. G. Szabo, P. A. Hackett, Can. J. Chem. 54, 3246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. T. V. Kung, I. Itzkan, Appl. Opt. 15, 409 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, J. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (2)

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Byrne, R. L. Sellers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Berg, P. Fleischer, G. R. Freitag, E. L. Bryant, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, Opt. Eng. 13, 10 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Wahl, J. C. Auchet, B. Donzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

R. S. Yaplee, A. Shapiro, D. L. Hammond, B. D. Au, E. A. Uliana, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-9, 170 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

1948 (1)

Apel, J. R.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, J. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Byrne, R. L. Sellers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Au, B. D.

R. S. Yaplee, A. Shapiro, D. L. Hammond, B. D. Au, E. A. Uliana, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-9, 170 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Auchet, J. C.

Ph. Wahl, J. C. Auchet, B. Donzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Austin, R. W.

R. W. Austin, “Remote Sensing of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Ocean Water,” AGARD Conf. 300, 18–1 Conference on Special Topics in Optical Propagation, 6–10 Apr. (1981), paper 18.

R. W. Austin, B. L. McGlamery, “Spatial Characteristics of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient on Ocean Surface Water as Derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner Data,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Radiation Transfer in Oceans and Remote Sensing of Ocean Properties, IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Aug. (1981).

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “Determination of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Sea Water Using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space,J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Wilson, R. W. Austin, R. C. Smith, “Optical Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll in Ocean Waters,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 1103–1113.

Baker, K. S.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Appl. Opt. 20, 177 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Olson, Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 585 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Berg, W. W.

W. W. Berg, P. Fleischer, G. R. Freitag, E. L. Bryant, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bowker, D. E.

P. Fleischer, T. A. Gosink, W. J. Hanna, J. C. Ludwick, D. E. Bowker, W. G. Witte, “Correlation of Chlorophyll, Suspended Matter, and Related Parameters of Water in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area to LANDSAT-1 Imagery,” Final Technical Report 28, NASA Contract NAS5-21816 to Old Dominion U., Aug.1976.

Bristow, M. P. F.

Brown, G. S.

G. S. Brown, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-25, 67 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Bryant, E. L.

W. W. Berg, P. Fleischer, G. R. Freitag, E. L. Bryant, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bundy, D.

Byrne, H. M.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, J. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Byrne, R. L. Sellers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Caputo, B.

Cox, C.

Donzel, B.

Ph. Wahl, J. C. Auchet, B. Donzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Duedall, I. W.

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

Esaias, W. E.

Fleischer, P.

W. W. Berg, P. Fleischer, G. R. Freitag, E. L. Bryant, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

P. Fleischer, T. A. Gosink, W. J. Hanna, J. C. Ludwick, D. E. Bowker, W. G. Witte, “Correlation of Chlorophyll, Suspended Matter, and Related Parameters of Water in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area to LANDSAT-1 Imagery,” Final Technical Report 28, NASA Contract NAS5-21816 to Old Dominion U., Aug.1976.

Frederick, E. B.

Freitag, G. R.

W. W. Berg, P. Fleischer, G. R. Freitag, E. L. Bryant, Limnol. Oceanogr. 20, 137 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Furtek, R.

Gardner, C. S.

Gehlhaar, U.

Glasgow, R. M.

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

Goldman, C. R.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Gosink, T. A.

P. Fleischer, T. A. Gosink, W. J. Hanna, J. C. Ludwick, D. E. Bowker, W. G. Witte, “Correlation of Chlorophyll, Suspended Matter, and Related Parameters of Water in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area to LANDSAT-1 Imagery,” Final Technical Report 28, NASA Contract NAS5-21816 to Old Dominion U., Aug.1976.

Hackett, P. A.

D. M. Rayner, A. R. McKinnon, A. G. Szabo, P. A. Hackett, Can. J. Chem. 54, 3246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hammond, D. L.

R. S. Yaplee, A. Shapiro, D. L. Hammond, B. D. Au, E. A. Uliana, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-9, 170 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, W. J.

P. Fleischer, T. A. Gosink, W. J. Hanna, J. C. Ludwick, D. E. Bowker, W. G. Witte, “Correlation of Chlorophyll, Suspended Matter, and Related Parameters of Water in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area to LANDSAT-1 Imagery,” Final Technical Report 28, NASA Contract NAS5-21816 to Old Dominion U., Aug.1976.

Hayne, G. S.

G. S. Hayne, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. AP-28, 687 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hayne, Radar Altimeter Mean Return Waveforms from Near-Normal-Incidence Ocean Surface Scattering,” NASA Contractor Report 156864, prepared by Applied Science Associates under Contract NAS6-2810, April1980.

Hoge, F. E.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Leonard, B. Caputo, F. E. Hoge, Appl. Opt. 18, 1732 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Marine Geodesy accepted for publication.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980,” in NASA Conference Proceedings, Document CP2188 (1980).

Holm-Hansen, O.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Olson, Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 585 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Itzkan, I.

Jerlov, N. G.

N. G. Jerlov, Optical Oceanography (Elsevier, New York, 1968).

N. G. Jerlov, Marine Optics (Elsevier, New York, 1976).

Johnson, R. W.

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

Kasha, M.

Krabill, W. B.

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Marine Geodesy accepted for publication.

Kung, R. T. V.

Lawrence, J. D.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. A.

Ludwick, J. C.

P. Fleischer, T. A. Gosink, W. J. Hanna, J. C. Ludwick, D. E. Bowker, W. G. Witte, “Correlation of Chlorophyll, Suspended Matter, and Related Parameters of Water in the Lower Chesapeake Bay Area to LANDSAT-1 Imagery,” Final Technical Report 28, NASA Contract NAS5-21816 to Old Dominion U., Aug.1976.

McCormick, M. P.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

McGlamery, B. L.

R. W. Austin, B. L. McGlamery, “Spatial Characteristics of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient on Ocean Surface Water as Derived from Coastal Zone Color Scanner Data,” in Proceedings, Symposium on Radiation Transfer in Oceans and Remote Sensing of Ocean Properties, IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, Aug. (1981).

McKinnon, A. R.

D. M. Rayner, A. R. McKinnon, A. G. Szabo, P. A. Hackett, Can. J. Chem. 54, 3246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

Melfi, S. H.

S. H. Melfi, J. D. Lawrence, M. P. McCormick, Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 295 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Nelsen, T. A.

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

Newman, F. C.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, Nature (London) 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, D.

Olson, R.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Olson, Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 585 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ostapoff, F.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, Nature (London) 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Petzold, T. J.

R. W. Austin, T. J. Petzold, “Determination of the Diffuse Attenuation Coefficient of Sea Water Using the Coastal Zone Color Scanner,” in Oceanography from Space,J. F. R. Gower, Ed. (Plenum, New York, 1981).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. M.

D. M. Phillips, “The Effect of Water Turbidity on Laser Depth Sounding Performance,” in Proceedings, Fourth Laser Hydrography Symposium, 30 Sept–3 Oct 1980, Document AR-002-576, Report ERL-0193-SD. Edited by M. F. Penny, D. M. Phillips, Adelaide, Australia, March1981.

Poole, L. R.

Proni, J. R.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, Nature (London) 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Johnson, I. W. Duedall, R. M. Glasgow, J. R. Proni, T. A. Nelsen, J. Water Pollut. Control Fed. 49, 2063 (1977).

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, J. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Byrne, R. L. Sellers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

D. M. Rayner, A. R. McKinnon, A. G. Szabo, P. A. Hackett, Can. J. Chem. 54, 3246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Sellers, R. L.

J. R. Apel, H. M. Byrne, J. R. Proni, R. L. Sellers, Remote Sensing Environ. 5, 125 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Apel, J. R. Proni, H. M. Byrne, R. L. Sellers, Geophys. Res. Lett. 2, 128 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, A.

R. S. Yaplee, A. Shapiro, D. L. Hammond, B. D. Au, E. A. Uliana, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-9, 170 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. C.

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Appl. Opt. 20, 177 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, O. Holm-Hansen, R. Olson, Photochem. Photobiol. 31, 585 (1980).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, K. S. Baker, Limnol. Oceanogr. 23, 247 (1978).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Smith, U. California, Santa Barbara; Personal communication.

W. H. Wilson, R. W. Austin, R. C. Smith, “Optical Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll in Ocean Waters,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 1103–1113.

Swift, R. N.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 22, 37 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Int. J. Remote Sensing 3, 475 (1982).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 1191 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 20, 3197 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, Appl. Opt. 19, 3269 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, E. B. Frederick, Appl. Opt. 19, 871 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Hoge, W. B. Krabill, R. N. Swift, “The Reflection of UV Laser Pulses from the Ocean,” Marine Geodesy accepted for publication.

F. E. Hoge, R. N. Swift, “Chesapeake Bay Plume Study, Superflux 1980,” in NASA Conference Proceedings, Document CP2188 (1980).

Szabo, A. G.

D. M. Rayner, A. R. McKinnon, A. G. Szabo, P. A. Hackett, Can. J. Chem. 54, 3246 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, B. M.

Tyler, J. E.

R. C. Smith, J. E. Tyler, C. R. Goldman, Limnol. Oceanogr. 18, 189 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Uliana, E. A.

R. S. Yaplee, A. Shapiro, D. L. Hammond, B. D. Au, E. A. Uliana, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron. GE-9, 170 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Wahl, Ph.

Ph. Wahl, J. C. Auchet, B. Donzel, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45, 28 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D. J.

J. R. Proni, F. C. Newman, F. Ostapoff, D. J. Walter, Nature (London) 276, 360 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, W. H.

W. H. Wilson, R. W. Austin, R. C. Smith, “Optical Remote Sensing of Chlorophyll in Ocean Waters,” in Proceedings, Twelfth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1978), pp. 1103–1113.

Witte, W. G.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmission spectrum of the composite optical filter used to help isolate the water Raman-backscatter line at 381 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Location of the experiment flight line. The positions denoted a, b, and c define the locations where the waveforms in Fig. 3 were taken. The segment labelled A-B shows the portion of the flight line where the data of Fig. 5 were taken.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Depth-resolved water Raman-backscatter waveforms (inset) taken at selected positions along the flight line shown in Fig. 2. The open circles at channels 7 and 10 illustrate which portion of the waveform is plotted as a function of time or distance along track in Fig. 4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Profile of channels 7 and 10 from the depth-resolved waveforms obtained along the flight line corresponding, respectively, to measurements made at depths of 1.8 and 2.5 m. The arrows show the locations of the depth-resolved waveforms in Fig. 3. A data gap is indicated by the straight lines connecting the profiles (between 240 and 280 sec).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Detailed plot of the initial flight line portion shown in Figs. 2 and 4. The presence of numerous clear water cells of various sizes are readily apparent.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Gaussian lidar system response function G(t). (b) Exponential water attenuation function W(t). (c) Backscattered Raman pulse R(t) calculated from the convolution of a Gaussian lidar system response, Gaussian sea surface height and slope probability density, and an exponential water column response.

Equations (13)

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R = L * P * W * H ,
R = G * P * W .
G ( t ) = ( 2 π σ g 2 ) 1 / 2 exp ( t 2 / 2 σ g 2 ) ,
P ( ζ , ζ x , ζ y ) = P 1 ( ζ ) P 2 ( ζ x , ζ y ) = ( 2 π σ ζ 2 ) 1 / 2 exp ( ζ 2 / 2 σ ζ 2 ) ( π S 2 ) 1
× exp ( ζ x 2 + ζ y 2 S 2 ) ,
P ( ζ ) = [ ( 2 π 3 ) 1 / 2 S 2 σ ζ ] 1 exp ( ζ 2 / 2 σ ζ 2 ) .
B = G * P = 2 [ ( 2 π 3 ) 1 / 2 c S 2 σ ] 1 exp ( t 2 / 2 σ 2 ) ,
σ 2 = σ g 2 + σ t 2 .
W ( t ) = U ( t ) exp ( t / τ ) ,
τ = n / 2 c ( γ e + γ r ) ,
R = B * W = A exp ( t / τ ) exp ( σ 2 / 2 τ 2 ) { 1 + erf [ ( t σ σ τ ) ] } ,
A = 1 / c π S 2 ,
S 2 = 0.003 + 0.005 W

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