Abstract

The relative accuracies of reflectance factor measurement methods involving the simultaneous, as compared to the sequential, measurement of irradiance on and radiance reflected from the target are discussed. Data are presented to support a statistical demonstration that the simultaneous measurement technique is the more accurate.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 142 (1982).
  2. M. J. Duggin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 356, 150 (1982).
  3. M. J. Duggin, Appl. Opt. 20, 3816 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 117 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 175 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. A. Smith, R. E. Oliver, “Plant Canopy Models for Simulating Composite Scene Spectroradiance in the 0.4–1.05 Micrometer Region,” Proceedings, Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972), pp. 1333–1353.
  7. W. Verhoef, N. J. J. Bunnik, NIWARS Tech. Report. No. 35 (Delft, Netherlands, 1976).
  8. E. J. Milton, Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).
  9. E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 47, 1223 (1981).
  10. E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 1474 (1982).
  11. C. J. Tucker, Appl. Opt. 16, 1151 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).
  13. M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).
  14. D. S. Kimes, V. A. Kirchner, W. W. Newcomb, Appl. Opt. 22, 8 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).
  16. K. T. Kriebel, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 257 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).
  18. C. S. T. Daughtry, V. C. Vanderbilt, V. J. Pollara, “Variability of Reflectance Measurements With Sensor Altitude and Canopy Type,” NASA Report NAS 9-15466 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1981).
  19. M. J. Duggin, “On the Natural Limitations of Target Differentiation by Spectral Discrimination Techniques,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), pp. 499–516.
  20. M. J. Duggin, W. R. Philipson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2833 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. M. J. Duggin, Appl. Opt. 16, 521 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. O. L. Davies, Statistical Methods in Research and Production (Oliver and Boyd, London, 1961), p. 41.

1983

1982

J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).

M. J. Duggin, W. R. Philipson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2833 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 142 (1982).

M. J. Duggin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 356, 150 (1982).

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 1474 (1982).

1981

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 47, 1223 (1981).

M. J. Duggin, Appl. Opt. 20, 3816 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980

E. J. Milton, Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

1977

1976

K. T. Kriebel, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bunnik, N. J. J.

W. Verhoef, N. J. J. Bunnik, NIWARS Tech. Report. No. 35 (Delft, Netherlands, 1976).

Daughtry, C. S. T.

C. S. T. Daughtry, V. C. Vanderbilt, V. J. Pollara, “Variability of Reflectance Measurements With Sensor Altitude and Canopy Type,” NASA Report NAS 9-15466 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Davies, O. L.

O. L. Davies, Statistical Methods in Research and Production (Oliver and Boyd, London, 1961), p. 41.

Duggin, M. J.

M. J. Duggin, W. R. Philipson, Appl. Opt. 21, 2833 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 142 (1982).

M. J. Duggin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 356, 150 (1982).

M. J. Duggin, Appl. Opt. 20, 3816 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

M. J. Duggin, Appl. Opt. 16, 521 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Duggin, “On the Natural Limitations of Target Differentiation by Spectral Discrimination Techniques,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), pp. 499–516.

Elgin, J. H.

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

Holben, B. N.

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

Kimes, D. S.

D. S. Kimes, V. A. Kirchner, W. W. Newcomb, Appl. Opt. 22, 8 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

Kirchner, J. A.

J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).

Kirchner, V. A.

Kriebel, K. T.

K. T. Kriebel, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

McMurtry, J. E.

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

Milton, E. J.

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 1474 (1982).

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 47, 1223 (1981).

E. J. Milton, Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

Newcomb, W. W.

Oliver, R. E.

J. A. Smith, R. E. Oliver, “Plant Canopy Models for Simulating Composite Scene Spectroradiance in the 0.4–1.05 Micrometer Region,” Proceedings, Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972), pp. 1333–1353.

Philipson, W. R.

Pollara, V. J.

C. S. T. Daughtry, V. C. Vanderbilt, V. J. Pollara, “Variability of Reflectance Measurements With Sensor Altitude and Canopy Type,” NASA Report NAS 9-15466 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Ransom, K. J.

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

Smith, J. A.

J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

J. A. Smith, R. E. Oliver, “Plant Canopy Models for Simulating Composite Scene Spectroradiance in the 0.4–1.05 Micrometer Region,” Proceedings, Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972), pp. 1333–1353.

Suits, G. H.

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, C. J.

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

C. J. Tucker, Appl. Opt. 16, 1151 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanderbilt, V. C.

C. S. T. Daughtry, V. C. Vanderbilt, V. J. Pollara, “Variability of Reflectance Measurements With Sensor Altitude and Canopy Type,” NASA Report NAS 9-15466 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1981).

Verhoef, W.

W. Verhoef, N. J. J. Bunnik, NIWARS Tech. Report. No. 35 (Delft, Netherlands, 1976).

Youkhana, S.

J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).

Appl. Opt.

Int. J. Remote Sensing

E. J. Milton, Int. J. Remote Sensing 1, 153 (1980).

Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 47, 1223 (1981).

E. J. Milton, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 1474 (1982).

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 142 (1982).

D. S. Kimes, J. A. Smith, K. J. Ransom, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 1563 (1980).

J. A. Kirchner, S. Youkhana, J. A. Smith, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 48, 955 (1982).

C. J. Tucker, B. N. Holben, J. H. Elgin, J. E. McMurtry, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 657 (1980).

M. J. Duggin, Photogramm. Eng. Remote Sensing 46, 643 (1980).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

M. J. Duggin, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 356, 150 (1982).

Remote Sensing Environ.

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 117 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. H. Suits, Remote Sensing Environ. 2, 175 (1972).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Kriebel, Remote Sensing Environ. 4, 257 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. S. T. Daughtry, V. C. Vanderbilt, V. J. Pollara, “Variability of Reflectance Measurements With Sensor Altitude and Canopy Type,” NASA Report NAS 9-15466 (U.S. GPO, Washington, D.C., 1981).

M. J. Duggin, “On the Natural Limitations of Target Differentiation by Spectral Discrimination Techniques,” in Proceedings, Ninth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1974), pp. 499–516.

O. L. Davies, Statistical Methods in Research and Production (Oliver and Boyd, London, 1961), p. 41.

J. A. Smith, R. E. Oliver, “Plant Canopy Models for Simulating Composite Scene Spectroradiance in the 0.4–1.05 Micrometer Region,” Proceedings, Eighth International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1972), pp. 1333–1353.

W. Verhoef, N. J. J. Bunnik, NIWARS Tech. Report. No. 35 (Delft, Netherlands, 1976).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simultaneous measurement of radiance reflected from a target and from a portable white Lambertian standard reflector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intercalibration of radiometers used to simultaneously measure radiance reflected from the target and that reflected from a portable white Lambertian standard reflector.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intercalibration of radiometers used to simultaneously measure irradiance on the target and radiance reflected from it. Here, the target radiometer views a portable white Lambertian standard reflector, while the second radiometer is fitted with a cosine receptor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simultaneous measurement of radiance reflected from the target and irradiance incident on it.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sequential measurement of radiance reflected from the target and (at a different time) from a portable white Lambertian standard reflector.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Original Reflected Target Radiance (Lr) and Irradiance (Er) Data Sets Obtained for Eight Different Targets in Bandpasses r

Tables Icon

Table II Efficiency Ratios for Eight Sets of Data

Equations (25)

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R = K L / E ,
σ R R = ( R / L ) 2 σ L L + ( R / E ) 2 σ E E + 2 ( R / L ) ( L / E ) σ L E + terms of lower order or magnitude ,
σ R R = K 2 σ L L / E 2 + K 2 L 2 σ E E / E 4 2 K 2 L σ L E / E 3 .
S R R = ( K 2 L 2 / E 2 ) ( S L L / L 2 + S E E / E 2 2 S L E / L E ) ,
C V R = S R R R , C V L = S L L L , C V E = S E E E .
S R R R 2 = S L L L 2 + S E E E 2 2 ρ ( S L L L ) ( S E E E )
C V R = ( C V L ) 2 + ( C V E ) 2 2 ρ ( C V L ) ( C V ) E ,
S L E = ρ ( S L L S E E ) .
L = ( Σ L i ) / n and E = ( Σ E i ) / n .
S L L = ( L i L ) 2 n ( n 1 ) = L i 2 ( Σ L i ) 2 / n n ( n 1 ) ,
S E E = ( E i E ) 2 n ( n 1 ) = E i 2 ( Σ E i ) 2 / n n ( n 1 ) .
S L E = ( L i L ) ( E i E ) n ( n 1 ) = L i E i ( Σ L i ) ( Σ E i ) / n n ( n 1 ) .
S R R = R 2 ( S L L L 2 + S E E E 2 2 S L E L E ) .
R = ( Σ R i ) / n ,
R i = K L i / E i for i = 1 , 2 , , n .
S R R = ( R i R ) 2 n ( n 1 ) = R i 2 ( Σ R i ) 2 / n n ( n 1 ) .
R = K L / E
S R R = R 2 ( S L L / L 2 + S E E / E 2 ) ,
S L L = ( L i L ) 2 n ( n 1 ) and S E E = ( E i E ) 2 m ( m 1 ) .
Σ L i = 3.719 , Σ L i 2 = 1.605333 , Σ E i = 12.016 , Σ L i E i = 5.216370 , Σ E i 2 = 16.994168 ,
S R R
R = Σ R i / n = 0.031001 0.0310 , S R R = [ 0.0098510421 ( 0.31001 ) 2 / 10 ] / ( 10 ) ( 9 ) = 0.0000004491343331 , S R R = 0.000670175 = 0.000670 .
S R R = R 2 ( S L L / L 2 + S E E / E 2 ) = ( 0.0304335278 ) 2 ( 0.0024692989 / ( 0.3719 ) 2 + 0.0283971378 / ( 1.2016 ) 2 ) = ( 0.0009261996 ) ( 0.01785341525 + 0.01966775228 ) = 0.00003475209090 , S R R = 0.005895090 = 0.005895.
( 1 ) Ef ( 1 , 3 ) = 0.0000347520909 / 0.0000003181555045 = 109.23 ,
( 2 ) Ef ( 2 , 3 ) = 0.0000347520909 / 0.0000004491343331 = 77.375 .

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