Abstract

This paper presents the results of investigations of atmospheric humidity profiles by a lidar on the basis of a tunable ruby laser. The lidar parameters are given, and the technique of lidar measurements of water vapor content in the atmosphere using the differential absorption technique is described. The results of reconstitution of humidity profiles up to 17-km altitudes are given based on results of laser sounding.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), pp. 215–224.
  2. R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Fourteenth Weather Radar Conference, U. Arizona, Tucson (1971).
  3. R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Werner, H. Herrmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 476 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. V. Browell, T. D. Wilkerson, T. J. McLlrath, Appl. Opt. 18, 3474 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).
  7. V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.
  8. O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).
  9. A. I. Grishin, G. G. Matvienko, in Investigation of Atmospheric Aerosol by the Laser Sounding Methods (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1980), p. 167.
  10. V. I. Goldinskii, A. V. Kutsenko, M. I. Podgoretskii, in Statistics of Counts When Recording Nuclear Particles (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1950), p. 412.
  11. V. G. Astafurov, in Paper Abstracts, Sixth All Union Symposium on Laser and Acoustic Sounding of the Atmosphere (Tomsk, 1980), pp. 30–33.
  12. V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

1981 (2)

C. Werner, H. Herrmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 476 (1981).
[CrossRef]

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

1974 (1)

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Astafurov, V. G.

V. G. Astafurov, in Paper Abstracts, Sixth All Union Symposium on Laser and Acoustic Sounding of the Atmosphere (Tomsk, 1980), pp. 30–33.

Browell, E. V.

Cahen, C.

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

Flamaut, P.

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

Goldinskii, V. I.

V. I. Goldinskii, A. V. Kutsenko, M. I. Podgoretskii, in Statistics of Counts When Recording Nuclear Particles (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1950), p. 412.

Grishin, A. I.

A. I. Grishin, G. G. Matvienko, in Investigation of Atmospheric Aerosol by the Laser Sounding Methods (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1980), p. 167.

Herrmann, H.

C. Werner, H. Herrmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 476 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Ivanenko, B. P.

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

Kutsenko, A. V.

V. I. Goldinskii, A. V. Kutsenko, M. I. Podgoretskii, in Statistics of Counts When Recording Nuclear Particles (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1950), p. 412.

Makushkin, Yu. S.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

Marichev, V. N.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.

Matvienko, G. G.

A. I. Grishin, G. G. Matvienko, in Investigation of Atmospheric Aerosol by the Laser Sounding Methods (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1980), p. 167.

McLlrath, T. J.

Megie, G.

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

Mitsel, A. A.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.

Naats, I. E.

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

Pelon, J.

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

Podgoretskii, M. I.

V. I. Goldinskii, A. V. Kutsenko, M. I. Podgoretskii, in Statistics of Counts When Recording Nuclear Particles (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1950), p. 412.

Samokhvalov, I. V.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), pp. 215–224.

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Fourteenth Weather Radar Conference, U. Arizona, Tucson (1971).

Sosnin, A. V.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

Voitsekhovskaya, O. K.

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

Werner, C.

C. Werner, H. Herrmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 476 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wilkerson, T. D.

Zuev, V. E.

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

Zuev, V. V.

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.

Appl. Opt. (1)

C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II (1)

C. Cahen, J. Pelon, P. Flamaut, G. Megie, C. R. Acad. Sci. Ser. II 292, 25 (1981).

Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1 (1)

O. K. Voitsekhovskaya, Yu. S. Makushkin, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaued Fiz. No. 1, 82 (1977).

J. Appl. Meteorol. (2)

R. M. Schotland, J. Appl. Meteorol. 13, 71 (1974).
[CrossRef]

C. Werner, H. Herrmann, J. Appl. Meteorol. 20, 476 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Third Symposium on Remote Sensing of the Environment (Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 1964), pp. 215–224.

R. M. Schotland, in Proceedings, Fourteenth Weather Radar Conference, U. Arizona, Tucson (1971).

A. I. Grishin, G. G. Matvienko, in Investigation of Atmospheric Aerosol by the Laser Sounding Methods (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1980), p. 167.

V. I. Goldinskii, A. V. Kutsenko, M. I. Podgoretskii, in Statistics of Counts When Recording Nuclear Particles (Fizmatgiz, Moscow, 1950), p. 412.

V. G. Astafurov, in Paper Abstracts, Sixth All Union Symposium on Laser and Acoustic Sounding of the Atmosphere (Tomsk, 1980), pp. 30–33.

V. E. Zuev, B. P. Ivanenko, V. N. Marichev, I. E. Naats, I. V. Samokhvalov, A. V. Sosnin, in Conference Abstracts, Ninth International Laser Radar Conference on Laser Atmospheric Studies (Munich, 1979), p. 240.

V. V. Zuev, V. E. Zuev, V. N. Marichev, A. A. Mitsel, in Extended Abstracts, Symposium on the Application of Lidar to Atmospheric Radiation and Climate (IAMAP Third Scientific Assembly, Hamburg, 1982), p. 84.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distribution of water vapor content along a horizontal path in the atmosphere. The sounding path lies above the heterogeneous underlying surface. Spatial resolution of measurements was 60 m. Two profiles were obtained in a 40-min time interval during the evening.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vertical humidity profile restored on the basis of the data of lidar measurements in the analog regime (ΔH = 120 m).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dynamics of inversion humidity profile. The broadening intervals were 45 min and 1 h, 15 min (ΔH = 60 m).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vertical humidity profile obtained on the basis of analog lidar returns (lower part of the curve) with ΔH = 120 m, in the photon counting regime (upper part of the curve) with ΔH = 240 m. The dashed line shows the humidity profile without correction; the solid curve gives the corrected profile.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water vapor profile up to 17-km altitude (curve 1) compared with that obtained with a balloon.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Winter humidity profile (curve 1) compared with the mean-climatic profile of water vapor.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Basic Parameters of the Lidar

Equations (7)

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ρ ( R ) = 1 K ( R ) d dR [ 1 2 ln U ( λ 2 , R ) U ( λ 1 , R ) ] ,
σ τ ( R i ) = 1 2 ( 1 N { 2 ( σ β i β i ) 2 + [ δ U λ 1 ( R i ) ¯ ] 2 + [ δ U λ 2 ( R i ) ¯ ] 2 } ) 1 / 2 ,
U λ 1 ; λ 2 ( R i ) ¯ = 1 N j = 1 N [ U λ 1 ; λ 2 ( R i ) ] j
σ τ ( Δ R i ) = 1 2 [ 1 N λ 1 ( Δ R i ) + 1 N λ 2 ( Δ R i ) ] 1 / 2 ,
M ¯ = n ̅ exp ( n ̅ ψ ) ,
D ( n ̂ ) = n ̅ [ 1 2 a exp ( a ) ] N exp ( a ) ( 1 a ) 2 × { 1 a 2 ( 2 a ) 2 [ 1 2 a exp ( a ) ] 4 N n ̅ exp ( a ) ( 1 a ) 2 } ,
σ τ ( Δ R i ) = 1 2 [ D λ 1 n ̅ λ 1 2 ( Δ R i ) + D λ 2 n ̅ λ 2 2 ( Δ R i ) ] 1 / 2 ,

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