Abstract

Spectra of absorption indices and data on gross chemical composition for two size classes of water soluble and dust fractions of high-volume aerosol samples are presented for several locations (mainly Bedford, Massachusetts; Meppen in Germany; Riverside and San Nicolas Island in California and some maritime locations). The absorption data were obtained by the KBr-pressed disk method. It has been found that regrinding of the pellets increases the absorption by salt samples considerably.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 11, 755 (1972).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 12, 564 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Grassl, Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 46, 75 (1973);K. Fischer, H. Grassl, Tellus 17, 522 (1975).
  4. K. Fischer, Appl. Opt. 14, 2851 (1975);Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. F. Pueschel, P. M. Kuhn, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2960 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. S. Ivlev, S. I. Popova, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 9, 587 (1973), English translation.
  7. G. Duyckaerts, Analyst 84, 201 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. R. Steyer, K. L. Day, D. R. Huffman, Appl. Opt. 13, 1586 (1974);K. L. Day, Astrophys. J. 199, 660 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. Ruppin, R. Englman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 149 (1970);R. Ruppin, “Spherical and Cylindrical Surface Polaritons in Solids,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, Ed. (Wiley, London, 1982), pp. 345–398.
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 22, 1842 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. Grosjean, Analys. Chem. 47, 797 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 18, 2353 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. E. R. Stephens, M. A. Price, Science 168, 1584 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. T. Cunningham, S. A. Johnson, Science 191, 77 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. E. Volz, “Results on Light Absorption,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. Gerber, E. Hindman, Eds. (Spectrum Press, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 357–372.
  18. G. M. Hidy, S. K. Friedlander, “The Nature of the Los Angeles Aerosol,” in Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, H. Englund, W. Burg, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 390–404.
  19. C. Junge, Tellus 8, 127 (1956).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H-W. Georgii, Geofis. Pura. Appl. 47, 155 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Junge, Tellus 5, 1 (1953).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. P. Tomaselli, R. Rivera, D. C. Edewaard, K. D. Moeller, Appl. Opt. 20, 3961 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
    [CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

1979 (1)

1976 (2)

P. T. Cunningham, S. A. Johnson, Science 191, 77 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (4)

K. Fischer, Appl. Opt. 14, 2851 (1975);Tellus 28, 266 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosjean, Analys. Chem. 47, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Pueschel, P. M. Kuhn, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2960 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

1973 (3)

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 12, 564 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Ivlev, S. I. Popova, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 9, 587 (1973), English translation.

H. Grassl, Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 46, 75 (1973);K. Fischer, H. Grassl, Tellus 17, 522 (1975).

1972 (1)

1970 (3)

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

R. Ruppin, R. Englman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 149 (1970);R. Ruppin, “Spherical and Cylindrical Surface Polaritons in Solids,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, Ed. (Wiley, London, 1982), pp. 345–398.
[CrossRef]

E. R. Stephens, M. A. Price, Science 168, 1584 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1960 (1)

H-W. Georgii, Geofis. Pura. Appl. 47, 155 (1960).
[CrossRef]

1959 (1)

G. Duyckaerts, Analyst 84, 201 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1956 (1)

C. Junge, Tellus 8, 127 (1956).
[CrossRef]

1953 (1)

C. Junge, Tellus 5, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Bockian, A. H.

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Bogard, J. S.

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Crabtree, J. H.

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, P. T.

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Cunningham, S. A. Johnson, Science 191, 77 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Day, K. L.

Duyckaerts, G.

G. Duyckaerts, Analyst 84, 201 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Edewaard, D. C.

Englman, R.

R. Ruppin, R. Englman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 149 (1970);R. Ruppin, “Spherical and Cylindrical Surface Polaritons in Solids,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, Ed. (Wiley, London, 1982), pp. 345–398.
[CrossRef]

Fischer, K.

Friedlander, S. K.

G. M. Hidy, S. K. Friedlander, “The Nature of the Los Angeles Aerosol,” in Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, H. Englund, W. Burg, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 390–404.

Georgii, H-W.

H-W. Georgii, Geofis. Pura. Appl. 47, 155 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Grassl, H.

H. Grassl, Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 46, 75 (1973);K. Fischer, H. Grassl, Tellus 17, 522 (1975).

Grosjean, D.

D. Grosjean, Analys. Chem. 47, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Hidy, G. M.

G. M. Hidy, S. K. Friedlander, “The Nature of the Los Angeles Aerosol,” in Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, H. Englund, W. Burg, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 390–404.

Hoggan, M. C.

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Holmes, J. R.

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

Ivlev, L. S.

L. S. Ivlev, S. I. Popova, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 9, 587 (1973), English translation.

Johnson, S. A.

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Cunningham, S. A. Johnson, Science 191, 77 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Junge, C.

C. Junge, Tellus 8, 127 (1956).
[CrossRef]

C. Junge, Tellus 5, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Khare, B. N.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, P. M.

R. F. Pueschel, P. M. Kuhn, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2960 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, R.

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lesch, W.

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, K. D.

O'Brien, R. J.

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Plihal, M.

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Popova, S. I.

L. S. Ivlev, S. I. Popova, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 9, 587 (1973), English translation.

Price, M. A.

E. R. Stephens, M. A. Price, Science 168, 1584 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pueschel, R. F.

R. F. Pueschel, P. M. Kuhn, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2960 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Rivera, R.

Ruppin, R.

R. Ruppin, R. Englman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 149 (1970);R. Ruppin, “Spherical and Cylindrical Surface Polaritons in Solids,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, Ed. (Wiley, London, 1982), pp. 345–398.
[CrossRef]

Schaack, G.

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, E. R.

E. R. Stephens, M. A. Price, Science 168, 1584 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steyer, T. R.

Tomaselli, V. P.

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Volz, F. E.

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 22, 1842 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 18, 2353 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 12, 564 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, Appl. Opt. 11, 755 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Volz, “Results on Light Absorption,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. Gerber, E. Hindman, Eds. (Spectrum Press, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 357–372.

Analys. Chem. (1)

D. Grosjean, Analys. Chem. 47, 797 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Analyst (1)

G. Duyckaerts, Analyst 84, 201 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Contrib. Atmos. Phys. (1)

H. Grassl, Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 46, 75 (1973);K. Fischer, H. Grassl, Tellus 17, 522 (1975).

Environ. Sci. Technol. (2)

R. J. O'Brien, J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Environ. Sci. Technol. 9, 367 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Bogard, S. A. Johnson, R. Kumar, P. T. Cunningham, Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 136 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Geofis. Pura. Appl. (1)

H-W. Georgii, Geofis. Pura. Appl. 47, 155 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. (1)

L. S. Ivlev, S. I. Popova, Izv. Acad. Sci. USSR Atmos. Oceanic Phys. 9, 587 (1973), English translation.

J. Geophys. Res. (2)

R. F. Pueschel, P. M. Kuhn, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 2960 (1975).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, J. B. Pollack, B. N. Khare, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5733 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

R. Ruppin, R. Englman, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 149 (1970);R. Ruppin, “Spherical and Cylindrical Surface Polaritons in Solids,” in Electromagnetic Surface Modes, A. D. Boardman, Ed. (Wiley, London, 1982), pp. 345–398.
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

E. R. Stephens, M. A. Price, Science 168, 1584 (1970).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Cunningham, S. A. Johnson, Science 191, 77 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tellus (2)

C. Junge, Tellus 8, 127 (1956).
[CrossRef]

C. Junge, Tellus 5, 1 (1953).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

K. H. Hellwege, W. Lesch, M. Plihal, G. Schaack, Z. Phys. 232, 61 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

F. E. Volz, “Results on Light Absorption,” in Light Absorption by Aerosol Particles, H. Gerber, E. Hindman, Eds. (Spectrum Press, Hampton, Va., 1982), pp. 357–372.

G. M. Hidy, S. K. Friedlander, “The Nature of the Los Angeles Aerosol,” in Proceedings of the Second International Clean Air Congress, H. Englund, W. Burg, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1971), pp. 390–404.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical effect of regrinding of pressed disks on absorption by water soluble salts (from aerosol): upper part for large particles, lower for small particle fraction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption (imaginary part of refractive index) by water soluble aerosol fraction (dry), once reground. Upper part for large particles, lower for small sizes. Scale change of abscissa at 15 μm. Some data from Bedford, Mass. Heavy line for composite of five high volume samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

As Fig. 2 but for Meppen, Germany. Individual collections.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

As Fig. 2 but for Riverside, Calif. Individual collections during smog conditions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

As Fig. 2 but for San Nicolas Island, Calif. Individual collections during foggy conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

As Fig. 2 but consolidated collections from maritime environments (Azores, Guam), compared with averaged spectra of sea salt from outer Boston Harbor and the Florida coast.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

As Fig. 2 but single sample in remote location of Vermont.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Some absorption spectra of alcohol soluble fraction of the aerosol: (a) probably smog related form of large size range spectra, (b) normal spectra, large and small size range.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Typical absorption by dust fraction (mainly large particle sizes) of aerosol: (a) Bedford and Meppen samples; (b) from Riverside and SNI (solid line) and Meppen and Vermont.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dispersion calculations for low nitrate aerosol model and typical aerosol sample (without dust component). (a) Imaginary part of refractive index, heavy lines for aerosol sample [dots from Eq. (1), solid line from dispersion analysis]; thin line, dispersion fit of averaged bulk values of (NH4)2SO4−Na2NO3 mix. (b) Real part of refractive index from dispersion fits (dots for aerosol sample, line for mix).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Typical High Volume Air Sampling Results

Tables Icon

Table II Rounded Composition of Aerosols at Some Locations; Data not Referenced in the Table are From Hidy and Friedlander.18

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n i = ( 4 π M ) 1 λ ρ ln ( T [ 1 + 0.12 T ] ) F ,
Downtown Los Angeles 1966 ) Riverside , Calif . 1968 }

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