Abstract

A compact twelve-channel photon-counting device based on existing Generation II imaging technology has been developed for use as the image-plane detector of the Dynamics Explorer Fabry-Perot interferometer. The device has an S-20 photocathode, three-microchannel plate electron multiplication stages, and an equal-area concentric-ring segmented anode whose geometry mimics that of the interference ring pattern produced by a plane etalon. The twelve channels sample equal and contiguous intervals in the spectrum. The purpose of the development has been to utilize the signal multiplex advantage of a multichannel detector in the measurement of Doppler shifts and line-broadening effects for naturally occurring atmospheric emission features of low intensity. The design, testing, calibration, and flight performance of the novel detector system are presented. In addition, measured emission line profiles at high resolution from the satellite instrument are presented to illustrate the operation of the device.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. B. Armstrong, in The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.
  2. E. B. Armstrong, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, Planet, Space Sci. 16, 431 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. Hernandez, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165, (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, in Proceedings, Seventh Annual Meeting of the Upper Atmosphere Studies by Optical Methods, Tromso, ISSN 0373-4854, 57, (1979).
  10. P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Bechtle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 493 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 17, 3088 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 507 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964), p. 323ff.
  18. G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
    [CrossRef]
  19. D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, Appl. Opt. 19, 2206 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  23. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).
  24. V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 3314 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  27. P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.
  28. G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 1695 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. D. H. Ceckowski, in Proceedings, Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference, New York, p. 660 (1976).
  32. I. P. Csorba, Appl. Opt. 18, 2440 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. K. Oba, P. Rehak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 683 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. (1984);submitted for publication.

1984

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. (1984);submitted for publication.

1982

1981

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 3314 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Oba, P. Rehak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 683 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Sivjee, T. J. Hallinan, G. R. Swenson, Appl. Opt. 19, 2206 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

I. P. Csorba, Appl. Opt. 18, 2440 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 17, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

D. Bechtle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 493 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165, (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1968

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, Planet, Space Sci. 16, 431 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965

1959

E. B. Armstrong, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, V. J.

Anger, H. O.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, E. B.

E. B. Armstrong, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205 (1959).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Armstrong, in The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.

Barlow, F. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bechtle, D.

D. Bechtle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 493 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Biondi, M. A.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373 (1978).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, Planet, Space Sci. 16, 431 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Born, M.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964), p. 323ff.

Carignan, G. R.

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Ceckowski, D. H.

D. H. Ceckowski, in Proceedings, Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference, New York, p. 660 (1976).

Cogger, L. L.

Craven, J. D.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Csorba, I. P.

Dynes, T.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Feibelman, W. A.

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, Planet, Space Sci. 16, 431 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Frank, L. A.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Fuller-Rowell, T. J.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Hallinan, T. J.

Hays, P. B.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. (1984);submitted for publication.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 3314 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Hernandez, G.

G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 507 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 21, 1695 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, O. A. Mills, J. L. Smith, Appl. Opt. 20, 3687 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, Appl. Opt. 17, 3088 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Hernandez, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165, (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Hicks, T. R.

T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jelinski, P.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Kellock, S. J.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, B. C.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Killeen, T. L.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. (1984);submitted for publication.

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 3314 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Abreu, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 20, 2196 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Lake, C. W.

Lampton, M.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, A.

Malina, R. F.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C.

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McWhirter, I.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Meriwether, J. W.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
[CrossRef]

Miller, J. R.

Mills, O. A.

Nagy, A. F.

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Oba, K.

K. Oba, P. Rehak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 683 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, V. L.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Reay, N. K.

T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
[CrossRef]

Rees, D.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, B. C. Kennedy, D. Rees, Appl. Opt. 21, 3903 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, A. Lyons, T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, Appl. Opt. 21, 3896 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Rehak, P.

K. Oba, P. Rehak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 683 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Roble, R. G.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Rounce, P. A.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Scadden, R. J.

T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, G. G.

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Shepherd, C. W. Lake, J. R. Miller, L. L. Cogger, Appl. Opt. 4, 267 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Sipler, D. P.

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Sivjee, G. G.

Smith, J. L.

Smith, R. W.

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, in Proceedings, Seventh Annual Meeting of the Upper Atmosphere Studies by Optical Methods, Tromso, ISSN 0373-4854, 57, (1979).

Spencer, N. W.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Sweeney, P. J.

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, in Proceedings, Seventh Annual Meeting of the Upper Atmosphere Studies by Optical Methods, Tromso, ISSN 0373-4854, 57, (1979).

Swenson, G. R.

Turtle, J. P.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

VanZandt, T. E.

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. C. G.

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wharton, L. E.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

Wolf, E.

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964), p. 323ff.

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Lett.

T. L. Killeen, P. B. Hays, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, Geophys. Res. Lett. 9, 957 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. P. Sipler, M. A. Biondi, Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 373 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.

K. Oba, P. Rehak, IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-28, 683 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Terr. Phys.

E. B. Armstrong, J. Atmos. Terr. Phys. 13, 205 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

P. B. Hays, J. W. Meriwether, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 1905, (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Hays, A. F. Nagy, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 74, 4162 (1969).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5165, (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, T. E. VanZandt, V. L. Peterson, J. P. Turtle, J. Geophys. Res. 80, 3271 (1975).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 2065 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. Hernandez, R. G. Roble, J. Geophys. Res. 81, 5173 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E

T. R. Hicks, N. K. Reay, R. J. Scadden, J. Phys. E 7, 27, (1974).
[CrossRef]

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. A. Rounce, F. E. Barlow, S. J. Kellock, J. Phys. E 13, 763 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. E.

D. Rees, I. McWhirter, P. B. Hays, T. Dynes, J. Phys. E. 14, 1320 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Planet, Space Sci.

M. A. Biondi, W. A. Feibelman, Planet, Space Sci. 16, 431 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Radio Sci.

P. B. Hays, G. R. Carignan, B. C. Kennedy, G. G. Shepherd, J. C. G. Walker, Radio Sci. 8, 369 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

D. Bechtle, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 47, 493 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. Martin, P. Jelinski, M. Lampton, R. F. Malina, H. O. Anger, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 1067 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Space. Sci. Instrum.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, B. C. Kennedy, Space. Sci. Instrum. 5, 395 (1981).

Other

E. B. Armstrong, in The Airglow and Aurora with a Photoelectric Fabry-Perot Interferometer, E. B. Armstrong, A. Dalgarno, Eds. (Pergamon, New York, 1956), p. 366.

P. B. Hays, T. L. Killeen, N. W. Spencer, L. E. Wharton, R. G. Roble, T. J. Fuller-Rowell, D. Rees, L. A. Frank, J. D. Craven, J. Geophys. Res. submitted for publication.

D. H. Ceckowski, in Proceedings, Technical Program, Electro-Optical Systems Design Conference, New York, p. 660 (1976).

M. Born, E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Macmillan, New York, 1964), p. 323ff.

R. W. Smith, P. J. Sweeney, in Proceedings, Seventh Annual Meeting of the Upper Atmosphere Studies by Optical Methods, Tromso, ISSN 0373-4854, 57, (1979).

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) IPD schematic; (b) anode layout. The connection to anode No. 1 is made behind the plane of the diagram.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Photograph of two completed IPD devices.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Functional block diagram for IPD electronics.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electrical circuit used for most IPD laboratory tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Typical IPD photocathode sensitivity curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

MCP bias voltage required to maintain gain at several specified levels is plotted as a function of processed charge density for an electron scrub test (see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dark count rates (Hz · cm−2) plotted as a function of pulse detector discriminator voltage from several IPD devices compared with similar rates measured for two of the S-20 photomultiplier tubes flown on the visible airglow experiment on Atmosphere Explorer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Typical pulse height distribution curve (IPD 8).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured count rate during the transit of a Gaussian spot probe across the photocathode of an IPD. The top section shows the counts measured in channels 1 and 2 of the device plotted as a function of the position of the spot probe. The middle section shows the geometry of the two anodes, and the bottom panel illustrates the size of the probe. See text for further details.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Life tests on filmed and unfilmed IPD devices. Photocathode sensitivity is plotted as a function of the total charge processed through the device. MCP electron gain was continually adjusted to be near 106, except where otherwise indicated. The unfilmed tubes show marked photocathode degradation, which is worse for the red end of the spectrum (near 6500 Å). The filmed tubes show no photocathode degradation for a total extracted charge of 0.1 C/cm2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical schematic for the DE F.P.I.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured spectrograms from the DE F.P.I. showing the effect of Doppler line broadening due to temperature. In the top panel is a spectrogram obtained using a frequency-stabilized He–Ne laser. The middle panel shows a spectrogram for the neon gas discharge calibration source carried onboard the satellite. The bottom panel shows a spectrogram obtained from orbit by viewing the sunlit thermosphere at the O(1D) emission line wavelength (6300 Å). Each of the twelve IPD channels samples a wavelength interval of 0.016 Å, which represents one-tenth of a free spectral range.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Dark count rate from the IPD on DE F.P.I. plotted as a function of orbit number. Counts from all channels except channel 8 have been summed. The statistical accuracy of each point is indicated by the bar. Anomalous points of high dark count correlate with passage of the spacecraft through the radiation belt.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Dark count rate from the IPD on DE F.P.I. plotted as a function of the measured etalon temperature for calibrations taken during the first 17 months in orbit. Counts from all IPD channels except channel 8 have been summed (see text). The solid line shows the temperature variation of dark count rate expected from laboratory calibrations. The statistical accuracy of each point is indicated by the bar. Anomalous points of high dark count correlate with passage of the spacecraft through the radiation belt.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Dark count rate for channel 8 of the IPD on DE F.P.I. plotted as a function of orbit number during the first 17 months in orbit. This channel shows a large background due to MCP-generated noise (see text). The statistical accuracy of each point is indicated by the bar.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Count rate from DE F.P.I. from the onboard sensitivity calibration measurements. The count from all channels is summed for data taken viewing the radioactive Pm147 source and plotted as a function of orbit number. The solid line represents the count rate decrease expected from preflight calibrations.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectrogram from DE F.P.I. showing the daytime sodium emission near 100-km altitude. For the DE F.P.I. resolution, the two D lines are 43.41 orders apart and thus appear to be separated by 0.41 of a free spectral range on the IPD.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Spectrograms from DE F.P.I. showing the nightime thermospheric O(1S) emission at 5577 Å. (a) Thermal line profile obtained from the upper mesospheric emission. (b) Highly nonthermal line profile obtained at thermospheric altitudes.

Tables (3)

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Table I IPD Specifications

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Table II Concentric Ring Anode Element Dimensions

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Table III DE F.P.I. Operating Parameters

Equations (3)

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2 π μ 0 d 0 λ 0 ( 1 δ λ λ 0 + δ μ μ 0 + δ d d 0 θ 2 2 ) ,
N i = C 01 t { Δ λ ¯ F λ 0 a 0 i 1 R 1 + R + T F ( λ l ) 0 [ a 0 i + n = 1 [ a n i cos 2 π n Δ λ 0 ( λ l λ F ) + b n i sin 2 π n Δ λ 0 ( λ l λ F ) ] exp ( n 2 G 2 ) ] } + B i ,
C 0 i = N i cal a 0 i Δ λ ¯ F λ cal t cal ( 1 + R 1 R ) , G = π λ l Δ λ 0 c ( 2 k T m ) 1 / 2 , λ l = λ 0 ( 1 + V c ) .

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