J. E. Kaufman, IES Lighting Handbook (Illuminating Engineering Society, New York, 1972).
R. M. Boynton, “The Visual System: Environmental Information,” in Handbook of Perception, E. C. Carterette, M. P. Friedman, Eds. (Academic, New York, 1975), pp. 285–307.
To make a point detector which is less susceptible to local variations in its photosensitive surface, the detector need not be placed directly against the pinhole. As long as the detector receives all the light entering the pinhole, it can be placed at some distance behind the pinhole to involve more of the detector surface without changing the result in principle
It does not matter whether these calculations are performed by us or by the optical and electronic configuration of a more complex photometer than the simple photodetector illustrated in Fig. 3. It is meaningless to ask whether an optical photometer actually calculated luminance in incident or emitted terms.
J. J. Gibson, The Senses Considered as Perceptual Systems (Houghton, Boston, 1966).
S. C. Brown, Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1979).
A. Sommer, Photoelectric Tubes (Methuen, London, 1951).
Nicodemus discusses how to calculate the solid angle of any target, but use of a ciruclar mask may be an easier solution.30
For visual receptors, a correction can be made for the Stiles-Crawford effect.23 Comparable corrections should be possible for other sensors whose structure also results in a certain directional selectivity.
For light incident at angles >20, the effects of Lambert's law become appreciable, but that is a relatively wide angle for imaging systems.
Correction in the final formula can, of course, be made for the transmittance of the optical system.
R. M. Boynton, “Vision,” in Experimental Methods and Instrumentation in Psychology, J. B. Sidowski, Ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966), pp. 273–330.
Y. LeGrand, Light, Color and Vision (Chapman & Hall, London, 1968).
D. B. Judd, “Correlates Basic of the Visual Stimulus,” in Handbook of Experimental Psychology, S. S. Stevens, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1951), pp. 811–867.
H. A. E. Keitz, Light Calculations and Measurements (Macmillan, london, 1971).
R. S. Longhurst, Geometrical and Physical Optics (Longmans, London, 1957).
Certain optical systems such as the Maxwellian view present some particular luminance calibration problems.28
L. M. Hurvich, D. Jameson, The Perception of Lightness and Darkness (Allyn and Bacon, Boston, 1966);L. A. Riggs, “Light as a Stimulus for Vision,” in Vision and Visual PerceptionC. H. Graham, Ed. (Wiley, New York, 1965), pp. 7–38;M. L. Rubin, G. L. Walls, Fundamentals of Visual Science (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1969);H. R. Schiffman, Sensation and Perception (Wiley, New York, 1976).
K. N. Ogle, Optics (Thomas, Springfield, Ill., 1968).
F. E. Nicodemus, Self Study Manual on Optical Radiation Measurements: Part 1—Concepts (U.S. G.P.O., Washington, D.C., 1976).
This assumes the source is at infinity and neglects taking into account the projected spherical area of the lens, which for most lenses amounts to a trivial correction.