Abstract

A servo controlled Michelson interferometer with a displacement of 3.8 m between the final positions of the movable mirror has been developed for precise laser wavelength comparisons. This instrument has been used to determine the wavelength ratio between the radiation of a 3.39-μm He–Ne laser stabilized to the CH4 transition ν3, P(7), component F2(2) and that of a 633-nm He–Ne laser stabilized to the 127I2 transition 11–5, R(127), component i. Expanded laser beams of Gaussian structure were used and the diffraction correction for the infrared beam was determined from measured beam parameters. Two series of measurements were carried out, approximating measurements with the total cross section and with only the central part of the beam. The results confirm the expected change of the diffraction correction. The weighted mean value of both measurement series yields λCH4I2 = 5.359 048 1743 (1 ± 3 × 10−10).

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM), 7e session, 1982, Recommendation M 1, p. M13.
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. M. Baird, D. S. Smith, B. G. Whitford, Opt. Commun. 31, 367 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).
  9. Laboratoire Primaire du Temps et des Fréquences (France), Rapport d'activité, pp. 24 (1981).
  10. V. P. Chebotayev, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. C8 42, 505 (1981), Suppl. au No. 12.
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  13. C. R. Pollock, D. A. Jennings, F. R. Petersen, J. S. Wells, R. E. Drullinger, E. C. Beaty, K. M. Evenson, Opt. Lett. 8, 133 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  23. J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM 1982), Document CCDM/82-41. (Report of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany), available on request from Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France.
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1983 (2)

1981 (3)

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

V. P. Chebotayev, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. C8 42, 505 (1981), Suppl. au No. 12.

J.-P. Monchalin, M. J. Kelly, J. E. Thomas, N. A. Kurnit, A. Szoke, F. Zernike, P. H. Lee, A. Javan, Appl. Opt. 20, 736 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (3)

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (2)

1978 (1)

1976 (5)

K. Dorenwendt, G. Bönsch, Metrologia 12, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

B. W. Jollife, G. Kramer, J. M. Chartier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 447 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Layer, R. D. Deslattes, W. G. Schweitzer, Appl. Opt. 15, 734 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1972 (1)

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

Baird, K. M.

Barger, R. L.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bayer-Helms, F.

F. Bayer-Helms, Bericht Me-16, Jan.1977, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig.

F. Bayer-Helms, J.-M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. Wallard, PTB-Bericht Me-17 (Braunschweig, 1977), p. 139.

Beaty, E. C.

Blaney, T. G.

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bönsch, G.

K. Dorenwendt, G. Bönsch, Metrologia 12, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J. M.

B. W. Jollife, G. Kramer, J. M. Chartier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 447 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chartier, J.-M.

F. Bayer-Helms, J.-M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. Wallard, PTB-Bericht Me-17 (Braunschweig, 1977), p. 139.

Chebotayev, V. P.

V. P. Chebotayev, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. C8 42, 505 (1981), Suppl. au No. 12.

Clairon, A.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cross, N. R.

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dahmni, B.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, B. L.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Day, G. W.

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Deslattes, R. D.

Domnin, Y. S.

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dorenwendt, K.

K. Dorenwendt, G. Bönsch, Metrologia 12, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Drullinger, R. E.

Edwards, G. J.

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Evenson, K. M.

Hall, J. L.

D. A. Jennings, C. R. Pollock, F. R. Petersen, R. E. Drullinger, K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, J. L. Hall, H. P. Layer, Opt. Lett. 8, 136 (1983).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hanes, G. R.

Helmcke, J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

F. Bayer-Helms, J.-M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. Wallard, PTB-Bericht Me-17 (Braunschweig, 1977), p. 139.

Javan, A.

Jennings, D. A.

Jollife, B. W.

B. W. Jollife, G. Kramer, J. M. Chartier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 447 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jolliffe, B. W.

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, M. J.

Kessler, E. G.

Knight, D. J. E.

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H. W.

Kosheljaevsky, N. B.

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kramer, G.

B. W. Jollife, G. Kramer, J. M. Chartier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 447 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kurnit, N. A.

Layer, H. P.

Lee, P. H.

Li, T.

Monchalin, J.-P.

Pearce, P. R.

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Petersen, F. R.

Pollock, C. R.

Rowley, W. R. C.

Rutman, J.

A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Schweitzer, W. G.

Shotton, K. C.

Shumjatsky, P. S.

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. S.

K. M. Baird, D. S. Smith, B. G. Whitford, Opt. Commun. 31, 367 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Szoke, A.

Tatarenkov, V. M.

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

Wallard, A.

F. Bayer-Helms, J.-M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. Wallard, PTB-Bericht Me-17 (Braunschweig, 1977), p. 139.

Wallard, A. J.

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Wells, J. S.

Whetstone, J. R.

Whitford, B. G.

K. M. Baird, D. S. Smith, B. G. Whitford, Opt. Commun. 31, 367 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Woods, P. T.

P. T. Woods, K. C. Shotton, W. R. C. Rowley, Appl. Opt. 17, 1048 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Zernike, F.

Appl. Opt. (5)

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (5)

B. W. Jollife, G. Kramer, J. M. Chartier, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 447 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. J. Wallard, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-25, 450 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. J. E. Knight, G. J. Edwards, P. R. Pearce, N. R. Cross, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 257 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 264 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Clairon, B. Dahmni, J. Rutman, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. IM-29, 268 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D (1)

T. G. Blaney, G. J. Edwards, B. W. Jolliffe, D. J. E. Knight, P. T. Woods, J. Phys. D 9, 1323 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Paris Colloq. C8 (1)

V. P. Chebotayev, J. Phys. Paris Colloq. C8 42, 505 (1981), Suppl. au No. 12.

JETP Lett. (1)

Y. S. Domnin, N. B. Kosheljaevsky, V. M. Tatarenkov, P. S. Shumjatsky, JETP Lett. 34, 167 (1981).

Metrologia (1)

K. Dorenwendt, G. Bönsch, Metrologia 12, 57 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. M. Baird, D. S. Smith, B. G. Whitford, Opt. Commun. 31, 367 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. M. Evenson, J. S. Wells, F. R. Petersen, B. L. Danielson, G. W. Day, R. L. Barger, J. L. Hall, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29, 1346 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM), Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM), 7e session, 1982, Recommendation M 1, p. M13.

Laboratoire Primaire du Temps et des Fréquences (France), Rapport d'activité, pp. 24 (1981).

Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM 1982), Document CCDM 82-30. (Report of National Bureau of Standards, U.S.A.), available on request from Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France.

F. Bayer-Helms, Bericht Me-16, Jan.1977, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig.

Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM 1982), Document CCDM/82-34. (Report of National Physical Laboratory, England), available on request from Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France.

F. Bayer-Helms, J.-M. Chartier, J. Helmcke, A. Wallard, PTB-Bericht Me-17 (Braunschweig, 1977), p. 139.

Comité Consultatif pour la Définition du Mètre (CCDM 1982), Document CCDM/82-41. (Report of Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany), available on request from Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Sèvres, France.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the wavelength comparison of stabilized lasers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical path for the optical signal processing at the interferometer output: H1,H2,H3, concave mirrors; M, plane mirror; A, exit pinhole; B, field-of-view aperture; S, wavelength-selective mirror; C, beam splitter cube; IR, infrared detector; R, red-radiation detector; P, detector arrangement for parallelism control; F1,F2, mounts for annular apertures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the autocollimation adjustment by feedback.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Contribution of different annular zones in the interferometer's field of view to the displacement measurement. Excess fractions f of the interference order dependent on the mean radius r of the annular zones: curve a, apertures in the infrared beam in mount F1; curve b, apertures in the red beam in mount F2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Results of precision measurements for the frequency determination of the 633-nm He–Ne laser (for references see text) converted into wavelength ratios of methane- and iodine-stabilized lasers and related to component i of iodine-127.

Equations (10)

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ψ ( r , z ) = ψ 0 ( 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ) 1 / 2 exp ( r 2 / w 0 2 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ) exp { i [ 2 π z λ arctan ( z / z 0 ) + r 2 / w 2 0 z / z 0 1 + z 2 / z 0 2 ] } ,
φ 1 = arctan ( z / z 0 )
φ 2 = r 2 π λ z z 0 2 + z 2
Δ l l = λ 2 π d φ 1 d z λ 2 π φ 2 z exp [ 2 ( r / w ) 2 ] df exp [ 2 ( r / w ) 2 ] df ,
Δ l l = 1 2 ( λ π w ) 2 1 2 C F ,
C = z 0 2 z 2 ( z 0 2 z 2 ) 2 ,
F = r 2 exp [ 2 ( r / w ) 2 ] df exp [ 2 ( r / w ) 2 ] df .
Δ l l = ( λ 2 π w 0 ) 2 .
λ CH 4 λ I 2 = 5.359 048 1739 for 48 - mm diam , λ CH 4 λ I 2 = 5.359 048 1745 for 13.3 - mm diam .
λ CH 4 λ I 2 = 5.359 048 1743 ( 1 ± 3 × 10 10 ) .

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