Abstract

The transmittance of aggregated copper films at different stages of oxidation in air have been measured in the 250–2500-nm wavelength range. The electron micrographs displayed an almost continuous structure of the films; the electron diffraction analysis shows these films are composed of Cu and Cu2O. These transmittances agree qualitatively with computated values based on the Bruggeman theory considering the films as a random mixture of Cu, Cu2O, and air.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  3. V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. L. Weichman, J. M. Reyes, Can. J. Phys. 58, 325 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. T. Chee, F. E. Girouard, V. V. Truong, Appl. Opt. 20, 404 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. G. Granqvist, J. Phys. 41, C1-247 (1981).
  7. D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 24, 636 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. P. Marton, J. R. Lemon, Phys. Rev. B 4, 271 (1971).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  10. R. D'Eramo, Thesis, University of l'Aquila, Italy, unpublished.
  11. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904);Philos. Trans. R. Soc.205, 237 (1906).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. A. Niklasson, C. G. Granqvist, O. Hunderi, Appl. Opt. 20, 26 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, DESY Report SR-74/7 (1974).
  14. W. B. Pearson, A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys (Pergamon, New York, 1958).

1981

1980

F. L. Weichman, J. M. Reyes, Can. J. Phys. 58, 325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1973

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1971

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1971).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Marton, J. R. Lemon, Phys. Rev. B 4, 271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1966

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1935

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

1904

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904);Philos. Trans. R. Soc.205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Abeles, B.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Boyko, F. L.

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Bruggeman, D. A. G.

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Chee, K. T.

Cody, G. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R. W.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Coutts, M. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Czanderna, A. W.

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1971).
[CrossRef]

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

D'Eramo, R.

R. D'Eramo, Thesis, University of l'Aquila, Italy, unpublished.

Drobny, V. F.

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Girouard, F. E.

Granqvist, C. G.

Gudat, W.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, DESY Report SR-74/7 (1974).

Hagemann, H. J.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, DESY Report SR-74/7 (1974).

Hunderi, O.

Kunz, C.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, DESY Report SR-74/7 (1974).

Lemon, J. R.

J. P. Marton, J. R. Lemon, Phys. Rev. B 4, 271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Marton, J. P.

J. P. Marton, J. R. Lemon, Phys. Rev. B 4, 271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904);Philos. Trans. R. Soc.205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Niklasson, G. A.

Pearson, W. B.

W. B. Pearson, A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys (Pergamon, New York, 1958).

Pulfrey, D. L.

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Reyes, J. M.

F. L. Weichman, J. M. Reyes, Can. J. Phys. 58, 325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Truong, V. V.

Weichman, F. L.

F. L. Weichman, J. M. Reyes, Can. J. Phys. 58, 325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Wieder, H.

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. Leipzig

D. A. G. Bruggeman, Ann. Phys. Leipzig 24, 636 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Can. J. Phys.

F. L. Weichman, J. M. Reyes, Can. J. Phys. 58, 325 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Wieder, A. W. Czanderna, J. Appl. Phys. 37, 184 (1966).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys.

C. G. Granqvist, J. Phys. 41, C1-247 (1981).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol.

A. W. Czanderna, F. L. Boyko, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 9, 393 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London 203, 385 (1904);Philos. Trans. R. Soc.205, 237 (1906).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. P. Marton, J. R. Lemon, Phys. Rev. B 4, 271 (1971).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

V. F. Drobny, D. L. Pulfrey, Thin Solid Films 61, 89 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. D'Eramo, Thesis, University of l'Aquila, Italy, unpublished.

H. J. Hagemann, W. Gudat, C. Kunz, DESY Report SR-74/7 (1974).

W. B. Pearson, A Handbook of Lattice Spacings and Structures of Metals and Alloys (Pergamon, New York, 1958).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normal transmittance at room temperature of three aggregated copper films with thickness di at various stages of oxidation. Δt is the oxidation time after the exposition of the samples to the laboratory atmosphere (d = days; m = months).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission electron micrograph of oxidized particulate copper films two months after the evaporation (initial thickness of copper film 150 Å).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical microdensitometer trace of electron diffraction patterns obtained for discontinuous copper film 150 Å thick exposed to the laboratory atmosphere after the evaporation. The arrows denote the calculated locations of the reflections with values of (hkl) shown for copper (C) and cuprous oxide (O). The cubic lattice parameters for both compounds have been taken from Ref. 14.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated transmittance spectra for oxidized discontinuous copper films. The curves refer to five different compositions of the film. The filling factors of copper (fc), cuprous oxide (fo), and the optical thickness (dop) for each film are shown in the figure.

Equations (2)

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i = 1 3 f i ( i ̅ i + 2 ̅ ) = 0 ,
d ( t ) = d c ( t ) + d o ( t ) = d c ( o ) [ 1 x ( t ) ] + d c ( o ) [ ρ c M W 0 / ( 2 ρ 0 M W c ) ] x ( t ) ,

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