Abstract

The optical properties of thirty-five all-dielectric spectral filter coatings for the visible spectrum have been investigated and correlated with the deposition conditions of the constituent layers of cryolite and zinc sulfide and with the processes which occur when the coatings are exposed to atmosphere. It will be shown that the results of measurements of transmittance and reflectance over the passband wavelengths can be predicted theoretically only if account is taken of absorption in the layers and scattering at the rough boundaries and of changes in the refractive indices of the layers due to water penetration.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 50, 241 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. J. Gourley, “A Study of Optical Scattering in Multilayer Thin Films,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1980).
  3. P. H. Lissberger, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317 (1956).
  5. G. Koppelmann, Ann. Phys. 5, 388 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. J. Hemingway, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 20, 85 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. E. Bennett, D. K. Burge, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 70, 268 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 121 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. J. Gourley, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 26, 117 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. K. Pulker, Optik 32, 496 (1971).
  11. J. F. Hall, W. F. G. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 14 (1955).
  12. P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, Appl. Opt. 15, 2736 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Atkinson, U. Belfast; private communication.
  16. P. H. Lissberger, J. Phys. E 2, 875 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. M. Pearson, “Structural Studies of Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Salford (1974).
  20. J. M. Eastman, “Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1974).
  21. O. Arnon, Appl. Opt. 16, 2147 (1977).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. P. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 126 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z. Phys. 158, 172 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z Phys. 157, 592 (1960).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. R. Gibson, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1982), in preparation.
  26. P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Koppelmann, Optik 17, 416 (1960).
  29. H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, Thin Solid Films 37, 163 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 305, 237 (1906).
  31. M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  32. P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317, 442 (1956).
  34. D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1113 (1982).

1982

P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1113 (1982).

1980

1979

S. J. Gourley, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 26, 117 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 50, 241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1977

1976

P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
[CrossRef]

C. S. Evans, R. Hunneman, J. S. Seeley, A. Whatley, Appl. Opt. 15, 2736 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, Thin Solid Films 37, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

D. J. Hemingway, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 20, 85 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1971

H. K. Pulker, Optik 32, 496 (1971).

1970

P. H. Lissberger, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1969

P. H. Lissberger, J. Phys. E 2, 875 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1960

G. Koppelmann, Ann. Phys. 5, 388 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z. Phys. 158, 172 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z Phys. 157, 592 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, Optik 17, 416 (1960).

1959

1956

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317, 442 (1956).

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317 (1956).

1955

J. F. Hall, W. F. G. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 14 (1955).

1906

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 305, 237 (1906).

Arnon, O.

Atkinson, R.

R. Atkinson, U. Belfast; private communication.

Bennett, H. E.

Bertrand, L.

P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Burge, D. K.

Cotton, D. R.

P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, J. M.

J. M. Eastman, “Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1974).

Evans, C. S.

Ferguson, W. F. G.

J. F. Hall, W. F. G. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 14 (1955).

Giacomo, P.

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317, 442 (1956).

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317 (1956).

Gibson, D. R.

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1113 (1982).

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gibson, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1982), in preparation.

Gourley, S. J.

S. J. Gourley, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 26, 117 (1979).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gourley, “A Study of Optical Scattering in Multilayer Thin Films,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1980).

Hall, J. F.

J. F. Hall, W. F. G. Ferguson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 45, 14 (1955).

Harris, M.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hemingway, D. J.

D. J. Hemingway, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 20, 85 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Hunneman, R.

Jones, P. L.

P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Koppelmann, G.

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z. Phys. 158, 172 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z Phys. 157, 592 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, Optik 17, 416 (1960).

G. Koppelmann, Ann. Phys. 5, 388 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, K.

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z Phys. 157, 592 (1960).
[CrossRef]

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z. Phys. 158, 172 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Lissberger, P. H.

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72, 1113 (1982).

S. J. Gourley, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 26, 117 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 50, 241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hemingway, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 20, 85 (1973).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. Phys. E 2, 875 (1969).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 121 (1959).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, W. L. Wilcock, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 49, 126 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Macleod, H. A.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, Thin Solid Films 37, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell-Garnett, J. C.

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 305, 237 (1906).

Moore, D.

P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, S.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, J. M.

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Pearson, “Structural Studies of Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Salford (1974).

Pelletier, E.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Persin, A.

M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Persin, M.

M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pulker, H. K.

H. K. Pulker, Optik 32, 496 (1971).

Richmond, D.

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, Thin Solid Films 37, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Roche, P.

P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Salter, I.

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Seeley, J. S.

Sparks, D. G.

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, B.

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Whatley, A.

Wilcock, W. L.

Zorc, H.

M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys.

G. Koppelmann, Ann. Phys. 5, 388 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. E

P. H. Lissberger, J. Phys. E 2, 875 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta

E. Pelletier, P. Roche, L. Bertrand, Opt. Acta 21, 927 (1974).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, Opt. Acta 19, 1 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Gibson, P. H. Lissberger, I. Salter, D. G. Sparks, Opt. Acta 29, 221 (1982).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hemingway, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 20, 85 (1973).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Gourley, P. H. Lissberger, Opt. Acta 26, 117 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. Roche, L. Bertrand, E. Pelletier, Opt. Acta 23, 433 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Optik

G. Koppelmann, Optik 17, 416 (1960).

H. K. Pulker, Optik 32, 496 (1971).

Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A:

J. C. Maxwell-Garnett, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A: 305, 237 (1906).

Rep. Prog. Phys.

P. H. Lissberger, Rep. Prog. Phys. 33, 197 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum.

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317 (1956).

P. Giacomo, Rev. Opt. Theor. Instrum. 35, 317, 442 (1956).

Thin Solid Films

M. Harris, H. A. Macleod, S. Ogura, E. Pelletier, B. Vidal, Thin Solid Films 57, 173 (1979).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, J. M. Pearson, Thin Solid Films 34, 349 (1976).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Macleod, D. Richmond, Thin Solid Films 37, 163 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. Persin, A. Persin, H. Zorc, Thin Solid Films 51, L1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Lissberger, Thin Solid Films 50, 241 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Jones, D. R. Cotton, D. Moore, Thin Solid Films 88, 163 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Z Phys.

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z Phys. 157, 592 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys.

G. Koppelmann, K. Krebs, Z. Phys. 158, 172 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. R. Gibson, Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1982), in preparation.

R. Atkinson, U. Belfast; private communication.

J. M. Pearson, “Structural Studies of Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Salford (1974).

J. M. Eastman, “Surface Scattering in Optical Interference Coatings,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Rochester (1974).

S. J. Gourley, “A Study of Optical Scattering in Multilayer Thin Films,” Ph.D. Thesis, U. Belfast (1980).

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross-sectional electron micrograph of a filter coating air: L(HL)48H(LH)4 glass. L is a quarterwave of cryolite (C), and H is a quarterwave of zinc sulfide (Z).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the automatic normal incidence photometer used for measurments of reflectance and transmittance of narrowband filters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance (R), transmittance (T), and loss (1 − TR) from the air side in the passband region of a narrowband filter coating ( C z + ) measured by the photometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of transmittance in the spectral passband region of a filter coating ( C z ) on exposure to atmosphere.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical micrograph of the water penetration pattern in a C z filter observed with radiation from a sodium source in the initial stages of the stabilization process in air.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram illustrating the water penetration process in the cryolite and zinc sulfide layers of a coating.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance changes at the design wavelength in a C z filter due to relative refractive-index changes δnL/nL = 1.72 × 10−2 and δnH/nH = 1.32 × 10−3 in individual layers of cryolite and zinc sulfide, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical micrograph of the water penetration pattern in a C c + filter observed with radiation from the sodium source in the initial stages of the stabilization process in air.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Transmittance changes at the design wavelength in a C c filter due to relative refractive-index changes δnL/nL = 1.72 × 10−2 and δnH/nH = 1.32 × 10−3 in individual layers of cryolite and zinc sulfide, respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Computed simulation of the evolution of the transmittance in the spectral passband of a C z filter coating on exposure to atmosphere; to be compared directly with Fig. 4.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Optical micrograph of a C c + filter observed in transmission with radiation from a sodium source 25 days after the filter was exposed to atmosphere; the development of fissures which accompany the water penetration process is illustrated.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Electric field distribution in filters with zinc sulfide spacers (8H) but no AR layer.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Electric field distribution in filters with cryolite spacers (4L) but no AR layer.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Theoretical variation of transmittance loss (1 − T), reflectance (R), and total loss (L = 1 − TR) as a function of the rms roughness on one of the spacer boundaries for a C z filter with λD = 589 nm.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table I Filter Types and Designs

Tables Icon

Table II Defects in Narrowband Filters

Tables Icon

Table III Optical Measurements on Narrowband Filters

Tables Icon

Table IV Sequence of Photometer Readings

Tables Icon

Table V Filter Properties

Equations (19)

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( f λ ) = [ M ] ( f ϕ ) ,
( f λ ) = [ ( δ λ / λ max ) L ( δ λ / λ max ) H ] , ( f ϕ ) = [ ( δ ϕ / ϕ ) L ( δ ϕ / ϕ ) H ] , [ M ] = ( m L + m 2 m L + m 0 + δ m L m 1 m L + m 0 + δ m L m 1 m H + m 0 + δ m H m H + m 2 m H + m 0 + δ m H ) , m 0 = c / ( 1 c ) , m 1 = c / ( 1 c 2 ) , m 2 = c 2 / ( 1 c 2 ) , c = n L / n H , δ m L = [ ( m L + m 2 ) λ D n L n L λ + m 1 λ D n H n H λ ] , δ m H = [ m 1 λ D n L n L λ + ( m H + m 2 ) λ D n H n H λ ] .
( f ϕ ) = [ M ] 1 ( f λ ) .
( 1 λ max λ max θ ) H = ( 1 δ θ δ λ υ λ D ) H ,
( 1 λ max λ max θ ) L = ( 3.39 ± 0.73 ) × 10 5 K 1 .
( 1 ϕ ϕ θ ) H = ( 2.02 ± 0.13 ) × 10 5 K 1
( 1 ϕ ϕ θ ) L = ( 4.00 ± 0.56 ) × 10 5 K 1 ,
( 1 ϕ ϕ θ ) H = ( 4.8 ± 1.0 ) × 10 5 K 1
( 1 ϕ ϕ θ ) L = ( 3.1 ± 0.7 ) × 10 5 K 1
( 1 λ max λ max θ ) H = 0.8 × 10 5 K 1 .
1 λ D n H n H λ
( f ϕ ) = ( δ n L / n L δ n H / n H ) = ( f n ) .
K K B K + 2 K B = q A ,
A = K I K B K I + 2 K B , K = n 2 .
n = n B ( 1 + 1.5 q A ) ,
δ n n = n w n υ n B = q G ,
Δ λ max = 4 i = 1 N l i n i Δ d i i = 1 N p i ( 1 λ n i n i λ )
l 1 = 1 2 , p 1 = m L or m H , l i = p i = c i 1 for i 1 and c = n L / n H .
σ λ = 4 [ i = 1 N ( l i n i ) 2 ] 1 / 2 σ d i = 1 N p i ( 1 λ n i n i λ ) .

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