Abstract

Efficient tapered Nb2O5 transition waveguide obtained by reactive sputtering has been demonstrated experimentally. It provides effective interconnection between two sections of Ti-indiffused waveguide with 0.8-dB total insertion loss. Chirped grating lenses have also been fabricated on Nb2O5 waveguides that have yielded 85% throughput efficiency. For signal processing applications in Ti-indiffused waveguides, the combination of grating lenses and the Nb2O5 transition waveguide will allow us to obtain lens functions that have both high efficiency and large angular field of view (∼4°).

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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  1. J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.
  2. S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).
  4. W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.
  5. S. K. Yao, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269 (Feb.1981).
  6. P. K. Tien, R. J. Martin, G. Smolinsky, Appl. Opt. 12, 1909 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 224 (1975).
  8. R. L. Davis, “RF Sputtered Thin Film Niobium Pentoxide for Intetgrated Optics,” at American Vacuum Society Symposium, Scottsdale, Ariz. (Feb. 1982).
  9. R. L. Davis, F. S. Hickernell, “Thin Film Oxides of Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum for Integrated Optics,” at SPIE Technical Symposium East, Washington, D.C., (Apr. 1983).
  10. S. J. Ingrey, W. D. Westwood, Appl. Opt. 15, 607 (1976).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).
  12. A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 14, 1207 (1975).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

1981

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

S. K. Yao, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269 (Feb.1981).

1979

W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976

1975

A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 14, 1207 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 224 (1975).

1973

Anderson, D. B.

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Burns, W. A.

W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Burns, W. K.

Chang, W. S. C.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.

W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.

S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

Davis, R. L.

R. L. Davis, “RF Sputtered Thin Film Niobium Pentoxide for Intetgrated Optics,” at American Vacuum Society Symposium, Scottsdale, Ariz. (Feb. 1982).

R. L. Davis, F. S. Hickernell, “Thin Film Oxides of Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum for Integrated Optics,” at SPIE Technical Symposium East, Washington, D.C., (Apr. 1983).

Delavaux, J.-M.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.

J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.

Forouhar, S.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.

W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.

S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

Hickernell, F. S.

R. L. Davis, F. S. Hickernell, “Thin Film Oxides of Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum for Integrated Optics,” at SPIE Technical Symposium East, Washington, D.C., (Apr. 1983).

Hsu, H. P.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 224 (1975).

Ingrey, S. J.

Kreismanis, V. G.

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Lin, Z.-Q.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

Lu, R.-X.

J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.

W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.

S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

Martin, R. J.

Milton, A. F.

W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Milton, W. K. Burns, Appl. Opt. 14, 1207 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 224 (1975).

Oaria, C. M.

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Sheem, S. K.

W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Smolinsky, G.

Thompson, D. E.

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Warren, C.

S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

Westwood, W. D.

Yao, S. K.

S. K. Yao, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269 (Feb.1981).

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

Zhou, S.-T.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. K. Yao, D. E. Thompson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 635 (1978).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron

W. A. Burns, S. K. Sheem, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron QE-15, 1282 (1979).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. P. Hsu, A. F. Milton, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-13, 224 (1975).

IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech.

Z.-Q. Lin, S.-T. Zhou, W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. MTT-29, 881 (1981).

Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng.

S. K. Yao, Proc. Soc. Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 269 (Feb.1981).

Other

J.-M. Delavaux, S. Forouhar, W. S. C. Chang, R.-X. Lu, in Technical Digest, Conference on Lasers and Electrooptics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1982), paper TH06.

W. S. C. Chang, S. Forouhar, J.-M. Delavaux, R.-X. Lu, “Chirped Grating Lenses in Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 Optical Waveguides,” in Proceedings, European Conference on Optical Systems and Applications, Edinburgh, Scotland, 7–10 Sept. 1982, to be published.

R. L. Davis, “RF Sputtered Thin Film Niobium Pentoxide for Intetgrated Optics,” at American Vacuum Society Symposium, Scottsdale, Ariz. (Feb. 1982).

R. L. Davis, F. S. Hickernell, “Thin Film Oxides of Vanadium, Niobium, and Tantalum for Integrated Optics,” at SPIE Technical Symposium East, Washington, D.C., (Apr. 1983).

S. Forouhar, C. Warren, R.-X. Lu, W. S. C. Chang, “Techniques for the Fabrication of High-Index Overlay Films on LiNbO3,” at SPIE Technical Symposium, Arlington, Va. (Apr. 1983).

S. K. Yao, D. B. Anderson, C. M. Oaria, V. G. Kreismanis, in Technical Digest, Topical Meeting on Integrated and Guided Wave Optics (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1977).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Bragg diffraction chirped grating lens.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nb2O5 transition waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Configuration of the shadow mask during sputter deposition of Nb2O5 film; (b) thickness profile of a Nb2O5 transition waveguide measured by the Dektak.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured insertion loss of a Nb2O5 waveguide as a function of the angular deviation of the propagation direction with respect to the ordinary axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

In-plane scattering intensity of the guided-wave energy coupled out of a Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide without interconnection waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

In-plane scattering intensity of the guided-wave energy coupled out after passing through the Nb2O5 interconnection region.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variation of etching rate of Nb2O5 film as a function of ion beam current density.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling coefficient vs etching depth of a Nb2O5 film with refractive index of 2.26 on LiNbO3 substrate. The Nb2O5 film thickness of the waveguide is 7000 Å.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table I Total Nb2O5 Waveguide Interconnection Loss and Taper Transition Slopes of Four of the Samples Made at UCSD and Motorola a

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