Abstract

Seven light sources were considered as excitation sources for ocular fluorescein fluorophotometry: tungsten, xenon flash, the continuous high pressure short arc lamps of xenon, xenon zinc iodide and mercury, and argon and He–Cd lasers. Each source was evaluated on the basis of its spectral match to the fluorescein absorption spectrum and dissimilarity to the ocular blue light hazard function. Light from the argon laser was found to be most suitable while light from the mercury arc and He–Cd laser was least. Each source was also evaluated on the basis of irradiance available at the cornea when used with a Zeiss slit lamp that had been converted to an ocular fluorophotometer.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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Errata

Jay W. McLaren and Richard F. Brubaker, "Light sources for fluorescein fluorophotometry: erratum," Appl. Opt. 23, 199-199 (1984)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-23-2-199

References

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    [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Vision Res. 20, 1133 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Standard Z-136.1 (ANSI, New York, 1980).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  14. D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).
  15. ILC Technology Technical Notes on Spectrally Enhanced 250 W Xenon Short Arc Lamps, Technical Bulletin 2833 (ILC Technology, 399 Java Drive, Sunnyvale, Calif., 1973).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. W. McLaren, R. F. Brubaker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 24 (Suppl), 150 (1983).
  18. R. R. Jones, D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 5, 208 (1966).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. Pressley, Ed., Handbook of Lasers with Selected Data on Optical Technology (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), pp. 16, 17, 21.

1983

J. W. McLaren, R. F. Brubaker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 24 (Suppl), 150 (1983).

1982

R. F. Brubaker, “The flow of aqueous humor in the human eye,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 80, 391 (1982).

D. M. Maurice, R. B. Gass, S. Cousin, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 22 (Suppl), 180 (1982).

C. R. Munnerlyn, J. Gray, D. Hennings, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci. 22 (Suppl), 59 (1982).

1980

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Vision Res. 20, 1133 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. O'Anna, Vision Res. 20, 1039 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. H. Webb, G. W. Hughes, O. Pomerantzeff, Appl. Opt. 19, 2991 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1978

R. F. Brubaker, R. L. Coakes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 474 (1978).
[PubMed]

1976

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, Nature London 260, 153 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1970

S. R. Waltman, H. E. Kaufman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 247 (1970).
[PubMed]

1966

R. R. Jones, D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 5, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1963

D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 2, 33 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1954

M. Langham, K. C. Wybar, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 52 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloom, J. N.

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brubaker, R. F.

J. W. McLaren, R. F. Brubaker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 24 (Suppl), 150 (1983).

R. F. Brubaker, “The flow of aqueous humor in the human eye,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 80, 391 (1982).

R. F. Brubaker, R. L. Coakes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 474 (1978).
[PubMed]

Calkins, J. L.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. O'Anna, Vision Res. 20, 1039 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coakes, R. L.

R. F. Brubaker, R. L. Coakes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 474 (1978).
[PubMed]

Cousin, S.

D. M. Maurice, R. B. Gass, S. Cousin, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 22 (Suppl), 180 (1982).

Gass, R. B.

D. M. Maurice, R. B. Gass, S. Cousin, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 22 (Suppl), 180 (1982).

Gray, J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, J. Gray, D. Hennings, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci. 22 (Suppl), 59 (1982).

Ham, W. T.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, Nature London 260, 153 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennings, D.

C. R. Munnerlyn, J. Gray, D. Hennings, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci. 22 (Suppl), 59 (1982).

Hochheimer, B. F.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. O'Anna, Vision Res. 20, 1039 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, G. W.

Jones, R. R.

R. R. Jones, D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 5, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaufman, H. E.

S. R. Waltman, H. E. Kaufman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 247 (1970).
[PubMed]

Kimura, R.

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langham, M.

M. Langham, K. C. Wybar, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 52 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levene, R. Z.

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maurice, D. M.

D. M. Maurice, R. B. Gass, S. Cousin, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 22 (Suppl), 180 (1982).

R. R. Jones, D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 5, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 2, 33 (1963).
[CrossRef]

McLaren, J. W.

J. W. McLaren, R. F. Brubaker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 24 (Suppl), 150 (1983).

Mueller, H. A.

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, Nature London 260, 153 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munnerlyn, C. R.

C. R. Munnerlyn, J. Gray, D. Hennings, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci. 22 (Suppl), 59 (1982).

O'Anna, S. A.

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. O'Anna, Vision Res. 20, 1039 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pomerantzeff, O.

Sliney, D.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Sliney, D. H.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Vision Res. 20, 1133 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, Nature London 260, 153 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G.

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waltman, S. R.

S. R. Waltman, H. E. Kaufman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 247 (1970).
[PubMed]

Webb, R. H.

Wolbarsht, M.

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

Wolbarsht, M. L.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Vision Res. 20, 1133 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wybar, K. C.

M. Langham, K. C. Wybar, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 52 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Ophthalmol.

R. F. Brubaker, R. L. Coakes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 86, 474 (1978).
[PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Arch. Ophthalmol.

J. N. Bloom, R. Z. Levene, G. Thomas, R. Kimura, Arch. Ophthalmol. 94, 435 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Ophthalmol.

M. Langham, K. C. Wybar, Br. J. Ophthalmol. 38, 52 (1954).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Exp. Eye Res.

D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 2, 33 (1963).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jones, D. M. Maurice, Exp. Eye Res. 5, 208 (1966).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol.

S. R. Waltman, H. E. Kaufman, Invest. Ophthalmol. 9, 247 (1970).
[PubMed]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci.

D. M. Maurice, R. B. Gass, S. Cousin, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 22 (Suppl), 180 (1982).

J. W. McLaren, R. F. Brubaker, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision Sci. 24 (Suppl), 150 (1983).

Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci.

C. R. Munnerlyn, J. Gray, D. Hennings, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vision. Sci. 22 (Suppl), 59 (1982).

Nature London

W. T. Ham, H. A. Mueller, D. H. Sliney, Nature London 260, 153 (1976).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc.

R. F. Brubaker, “The flow of aqueous humor in the human eye,” Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 80, 391 (1982).

Vision Res.

D. H. Sliney, M. L. Wolbarsht, Vision Res. 20, 1133 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Calkins, B. F. Hochheimer, S. A. O'Anna, Vision Res. 20, 1039 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

American National Standards Institute, American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers, Standard Z-136.1 (ANSI, New York, 1980).

J. Pressley, Ed., Handbook of Lasers with Selected Data on Optical Technology (Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland, Ohio, 1971), pp. 16, 17, 21.

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents in the Work Environment with Intended Changes for 1982 (ACGIH, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1982).

D. Sliney, M. Wolbarsht, Safety with Lasers and Other Optical Sources (Plenum, New York, 1980).

ILC Technology Technical Notes on Spectrally Enhanced 250 W Xenon Short Arc Lamps, Technical Bulletin 2833 (ILC Technology, 399 Java Drive, Sunnyvale, Calif., 1973).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Excitation and emission spectra of fluorescein and the blue light hazard function. An ideal source for ocular fluorescein excitation would have a spectrum with a peak near the fluorescein excitation peak and would drop off rapidly above and below. Overlap with the blue light hazard function and fluorescein emission spectrum would be minimized. (Sources: blue light hazard function.13 Fluorescein excitation and emission spectra were measured on an SLM 8000 spectrophotometer, pH = 7.3, detection wavelength = 515 nm for excitation spectrum, excitation wavelength = 495 nm for emission spectrum.)

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of three continuous short arc sources that may be suitable for fluorescein fluorophotometry. [Sources: Hg and Xe (Ref. 19); XeZnI2 (Ref. 15).]

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of a slit lamp fluorophotometer. The measurement window (shaded region) is selected by the intersection of the illumination slit and the cone of acceptance produced by the field stop projected back through the microscope.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Details of measurement window. Ideally only fluorescent light from the disk of radius r will be measured by the PMT.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table I Indices of Merit for Light Sources Used for Fluorescein Fluorophotometry

Tables Icon

Table II Irradiances Necessary to Measure 5 × 10−9-g/cm3 Fluorescein with Zeiss Slit Lamp

Tables Icon

Table III Properties of Light Sources Used with the Zeiss Slit Lamp

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

SNR = N q N q + N S T q + N D ,
F e = Φ E 2 r w exp ( C f x ) [ 1 exp ( C f π r 2 ) ] e a e o / sin θ ,
F e = Φ E π r 2 w C f e a e o / sin θ .
N = F e τ [ ( h c ) / λ ] ,

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