Abstract

The character of the interaction of radiation with the elements of plant canopies determines the light conditions for their photosynthesis and hence for the formation of the final yield. Investigation of the dependence of the optical properties of canopies on the irradiation conditions makes it necessary to know the variability of the optical properties of both individual phytoelements and whole canopies. If the distribution of radiation within a canopy and the character of transformation of the spectral composition of the radiation penetrating the canopy are known, the efficiency of assimilation of radiant energy can be more accurately estimated. Obtaining such information may be helpful in selecting optimum radiation conditions for canopies of a different structure. This paper examines certain optical characteristics of canopies having different optical densities and their individual phytoelements as well as several characteristics of the radiation field in canopies during their prolonged growth while illuminated with radiant fluxes of different intensities and spectral compositions of photosynthetically active radiation.

© 1983 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.
  2. I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).
  3. F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).
  4. N. T. Nilovskaya, “Study of Gas Exchange and Productivity of Plant Cultures in Phytotrons,” Author's Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation (Kiev, 1973).
  5. A. B. Brandt, S. V. Tageeva, Optical Parameters of Plant Organisms (Nauka, Moscow, 1967).
  6. A. A. Tikhomirov, “Optical Properties and Productivity of Plant Canopies in the Presence of Radiation of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions,” Candidate's Dissertation (Krasnoyarsk, 1979).
  7. V. S. Khazanov, “Absolute Measurements of Radiation with the VNISI FAR-74 Light Meter,” in Problems of Plant Photoenergetics (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975), p. 102.
  8. I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskii, Photomultipliers (Soviet Radio, Moscow, 1974).
  9. A. A. Tikhomirov, “Formation of the Structure and Photosynthesis of Canopies in the Presence of Light of Different Intensities in Individual Regions of PhAR,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 58–80.
  10. Kh. G. Moldau, “Scattering Properties of Plant Leaves,” Author's Abstract of Candidate's Dissertation (Tartu State U., Tartu, 1966).
  11. V. M. Leman, Cultivation of Plants under Electric Light (Kolos, Moscow, 1971), 320 pp.
  12. I. A. Shulgin, The Plant and the Sun (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1973), 252 pp.
  13. A. Kimura, Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. 37, 570 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. E. Sheehy, D. Cook, Ann. Bot. London 41, No. 175, 1017 (1977).
  15. T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. V. Efimov, “Optical Properties of Plants and Cultures in Relation to Their Productivity,” in Physiology and Productivity of Plants in Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude, 1972), pp. 83–141.
  17. F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

1978 (2)

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

1977 (1)

J. E. Sheehy, D. Cook, Ann. Bot. London 41, No. 175, 1017 (1977).

1970 (1)

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

A. Kimura, Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. 37, 570 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Anisimova, I. I.

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskii, Photomultipliers (Soviet Radio, Moscow, 1974).

Brandt, A. B.

A. B. Brandt, S. V. Tageeva, Optical Parameters of Plant Organisms (Nauka, Moscow, 1967).

Cook, D.

J. E. Sheehy, D. Cook, Ann. Bot. London 41, No. 175, 1017 (1977).

Efimov, M. V.

M. V. Efimov, “Optical Properties of Plants and Cultures in Relation to Their Productivity,” in Physiology and Productivity of Plants in Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude, 1972), pp. 83–141.

Fedyunkin, D. V.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

Filimonov, V. S.

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

Glukhovskii, B. M.

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskii, Photomultipliers (Soviet Radio, Moscow, 1974).

Golovin, V. I.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

Khazanov, V. S.

V. S. Khazanov, “Absolute Measurements of Radiation with the VNISI FAR-74 Light Meter,” in Problems of Plant Photoenergetics (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975), p. 102.

Kimura, A.

A. Kimura, Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. 37, 570 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kojyo, S.

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Leman, V. M.

V. M. Leman, Cultivation of Plants under Electric Light (Kolos, Moscow, 1971), 320 pp.

Lisovskii, G. M.

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Matsushima, S.

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Moldau, Kh. G.

Kh. G. Moldau, “Scattering Properties of Plant Leaves,” Author's Abstract of Candidate's Dissertation (Tartu State U., Tartu, 1966).

Nilovskaya, N. T.

N. T. Nilovskaya, “Study of Gas Exchange and Productivity of Plant Cultures in Phytotrons,” Author's Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation (Kiev, 1973).

Nitta, H.

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Pavlovskii, V. I.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

Prikupets, L. B.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Rubtsov, I. D.

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

Sarychev, G. S.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Sheehy, J. E.

J. E. Sheehy, D. Cook, Ann. Bot. London 41, No. 175, 1017 (1977).

Shulgin, I. A.

I. A. Shulgin, The Plant and the Sun (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1973), 252 pp.

Sidko, A. F.

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

Sidko, F. Ya.

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Tageeva, S. V.

A. B. Brandt, S. V. Tageeva, Optical Parameters of Plant Organisms (Nauka, Moscow, 1967).

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, A. A.

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

A. A. Tikhomirov, “Optical Properties and Productivity of Plant Canopies in the Presence of Radiation of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions,” Candidate's Dissertation (Krasnoyarsk, 1979).

A. A. Tikhomirov, “Formation of the Structure and Photosynthesis of Canopies in the Presence of Light of Different Intensities in Individual Regions of PhAR,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 58–80.

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Zolotukhin, I. G.

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

Ann. Bot. London (1)

J. E. Sheehy, D. Cook, Ann. Bot. London 41, No. 175, 1017 (1977).

Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. (1)

A. Kimura, Proc. Crop Sci. Soc. Jpn. 37, 570 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. (1)

T. Tanaka, S. Matsushima, S. Kojyo, H. Nitta, Proc. Crop Soc. Jpn. 39, 319 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Svetotekhnika (1)

I. G. Zolotukhin, G. M. Lisovskii, F. Ya. Sidko, A. A. Tikhomirov, Svetotekhnika 5, 11 (1978).

Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. (1)

F. Ya. Sidko, V. S. Filimonov, A. F. Sidko, I. D. Rubtsov, Zh. Prikl. Spektrosk. 29, 950 (1978).

Other (12)

N. T. Nilovskaya, “Study of Gas Exchange and Productivity of Plant Cultures in Phytotrons,” Author's Abstract of Doctoral Dissertation (Kiev, 1973).

A. B. Brandt, S. V. Tageeva, Optical Parameters of Plant Organisms (Nauka, Moscow, 1967).

A. A. Tikhomirov, “Optical Properties and Productivity of Plant Canopies in the Presence of Radiation of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions,” Candidate's Dissertation (Krasnoyarsk, 1979).

V. S. Khazanov, “Absolute Measurements of Radiation with the VNISI FAR-74 Light Meter,” in Problems of Plant Photoenergetics (Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1975), p. 102.

I. I. Anisimova, B. M. Glukhovskii, Photomultipliers (Soviet Radio, Moscow, 1974).

A. A. Tikhomirov, “Formation of the Structure and Photosynthesis of Canopies in the Presence of Light of Different Intensities in Individual Regions of PhAR,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 58–80.

Kh. G. Moldau, “Scattering Properties of Plant Leaves,” Author's Abstract of Candidate's Dissertation (Tartu State U., Tartu, 1966).

V. M. Leman, Cultivation of Plants under Electric Light (Kolos, Moscow, 1971), 320 pp.

I. A. Shulgin, The Plant and the Sun (Gidrometeoizdat, Leningrad, 1973), 252 pp.

M. V. Efimov, “Optical Properties of Plants and Cultures in Relation to Their Productivity,” in Physiology and Productivity of Plants in Transbaikalia (Ulan-Ude, 1972), pp. 83–141.

F. Ya. Sidko, G. M. Lisovskii, G. S. Sarychev, A. A. Tikhomirov, I. G. Zolotukhin, L. B. Prikupets, “Action of Light of Different Intensities and Spectral Compositions on the Productive Processes of Radish Canopies,” in Intensive Artificial-Light Culture of Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences SSSRKrasnoyarsk, 1977), pp. 3–14.

L. B. Prikupets, G. S. Sarychev, V. I. Golovin, V. I. Pavlovskii, D. V. Fedyunkin, “Prospects for the Use of Mercury Halide Radiation Sources in Photobiological Research,” in Control of the Rate and Direction of Biosynthesis in Plants (Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch, Academy of Sciences, SSSR, Krasnoyarsk, 1973), pp. 76–77.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical diagram of photometer (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagrammatic plant of a portion of cenosis where photometric measurements were taken. Arrow denotes the direction of scanning: — middle of row, - - - middle of row spacing: a, width of portion symmetric about the middle of row; b, width of portion symmetric about the middle of row spacing. For radish canopies, a = b = 4.5 cm, and for wheat canopies, a = b = 3 cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Age variations in absorption coefficients of leaves of wheat canopies grown at irradiances E = 100 W/m2 (A) and E = 600 W/m2 (B) in individual regions of PAR: (a) first (upper) leaf; (b) second leaf; (c) third leaf; (d) fourth leaf; ●, 400–500 nm; ▲, 500–600 nm; ■ 600–700 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorption spectra of radish leaves of the same age (15 days) grown at irradiances E = 100 W/m2 (control), 200 and 600 W/m2 in individual regions of PhAR: (a) 400–500 nm, 1—E = 100 W/m2,2—E = 600 W/m2; (b) 500–600 nm, 1′—E = 100 W/m2,2′—E = 300 W/m2; (c) 600–700 nm, 1″—E = 100 W/m2, 2″—E = 300 W/m2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral curves of radiation absorption by leaves of radish canopies formed at irradiance E = 600-W/m2 PhAR of different spectral compositions: (a) 1—400–500 nm (75%) + 500–600 nm (15%); 2—400–500 nm (15%) + 500–600 nm (75%); 3—400–500 nm (15%) + 600–700 nm (75%). (b) 1—400–500 nm (40%) + 500–600 nm (20%) + 600–700 nm (40%); 2—400–500 nm (20%) + 500–600 nm (40%) + 600–700 nm (40%); 3—400–500 nm (70%) + 500–600 nm (15%) + 600–700 nm (15%).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical photograph of a leaf surface of a radish canopy grown at an irradiance of 600-W/m2 PhAR, enriched to 40–50% with blue light (explanation in text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Diagrammatic representation of the profile of a portion of a radish leaf surface which has undergone formative changes under the influence of high irradiances E E 400 - W / m 2 PhAR (explanation in text).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Absorption coefficients A in individual regions of PhAR vs angle of incidence of light rays on the leaf surface: ●, 400–500 nm; ■, 600–700 nm; ▲, 500–600 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Ratio of absorption coefficients (Aα=75°/Aα=0°) 100% in various regions of PhAR vs surface concentration of chlorophylls (A + B) in leaves (a) 400–500 nm, (b) 500–600 nm, (c) 600–700 nm, (d) 400–700 nm.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diagram of brightness distribution for a radiant flux incident on a radish canopy (1) and after passing through one (2) and two (3) leaf blades; age, 24 days; λ = 560 nm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Brightness in different areas under a leaf layer of radish exposed to a source of artificial illumination with normal incidence on the surface of the canopy.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Horizontal variability of spectral transmittance of radish and wheat canopies. The measurements were taken under scattered daylight: ●, measurements under leaf layer of radish; —, measurements under leaf layer of wheat; - - -, measurements in the middle portion of leaf layer of wheat. Angle between the vertical and the direction of measurements was 0.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Transformation of spectral composition of radiation transmitted through a wheat canopy. Age, 30 days: (a) above canopy; (b) at depth H = 1/2; (c) under canopy. Angle between the vertical and the direction of measurements was 0.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table I Absorptivity (A, %) of Wheat Stems and Ears of Different Ages Grown at an Irradiance of 100 W/m2 (E1) and 600 W/m2 (E2) in Individual Regions of PhAR

Tables Icon

Table II Light Transmittance T, Reflectance R, and Absorption Coefficient for Radish Plants Grown at Different Irradiances E in Individual Regions of PhAR

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A λ = 1 ( R + T ) .
λ = i A λ i λ i Δ λ i λ i Δ λ ,
= ( E 0 E H ) / E 0 ,
E = i / ( T λ k λ k 1 ) ,

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